Evolutionary Ecology Research
Final Editions
Volume 1, January, 1999 through Volume 17, November, 2016

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DEDICATION to Joe Citron

And now for something NOT completely different
Michael L. Rosenzweig

The genetic consequences of evolving two sexes: the genetic structure of distylous and dioecious species of Erythroxylum.
César A. Abarca, Angélica Martínez-Bauer, Francisco Molina-Freaner & César A. Domínguez — 2008(2) (tejada@servidor.unam.mx)
Keywords: Baker's hypothesis, dioecy, distyly, Erythroxylum, genetic differentiation, genetic diversity, sexual dimorphism

Morph-specific variation in intersexual genetic correlations in an intra-specific mimicry system.
Jessica K. Abbott & Erik I. Svensson — 2010(1) (jessica.abbott@ebc.uu.se)
Keywords: damselflies, Ischnura elegans, male mimic, polymorphism, sexual dimorphism

Population- and sex-specific divergence in growth patterns between two ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius L) populations.
Nurul Izza Ab Ghani, Anna Kuparinen, Tuomas Leinonen & Juha Merilä — 2013(7) (juha.merila@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: asymptotic length, common garden, growth rate, maturation, Pungitius pungitius, von Bertalanffy

A method for testing the assumption of phylogenetic independence in comparative data.
Ehab Abouheif — 1999(8) (abouheif@duke.edu)
Keywords: comparative method, independent contrasts, phylogeny, phylogenetic autocorrelation, test for serial independence

The implications of using multiple resources for consumer density dependence.
Peter A. Abrams — 2009(4) (peter.abrams@utoronto.ca)
Keywords: apparent competition, consumer?resource interaction, density dependence, exclusion, growth–defence trade-offs, harvesting populations, logistic model

Measuring the population-level consequences of predator-induced prey movement.
Peter A. Abrams — 2008(3) (abrams@zoo.utoronto.ca)
Keywords: functional response, habitat selection, meta-community, non-consumptive effect, predator-prey interaction, trait-mediated indirect interaction, tri-trophic system

Can adaptive evolution or behaviour lead to diversification of traits determining a trade-off between foraging gain and predation risk?
Peter A. Abrams — 2003(5) (abrams@zoo.utoronto.ca)
Keywords: adaptive foraging, anti-predator behaviour, behavioural dynamics, branching point, diversification, food chain, predation

Adaptive dynamics: neither F nor G.
Peter A. Abrams — 2001(3) (abrams@zoo.utoronto.ca)  
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, evolutionarily stable strategy, fitness minimum, G-function, phenotypic models of evolution, stability

The effect of competition between prey species on the evolution of their vulnerabilities to a shared predator.
Peter A. Abrams & Xin Chen — 2002(6) (abrams@zoo.utoronto.ca)
Keywords: apparent competition, character displacement, competition, food web, predation

The impact of adaptive defence on top-down and bottom-up effects in systems with intraguild predation.
Peter A. Abrams & Simon R. Fung — 2010(3) (peter.abrams@utoronto.ca)
Keywords: adaptive behaviour, anti-predator behaviour, bottom-up effect, food chain, intraguild predation, omnivory, top-down effect

The effect of risk of mortality on the foraging behaviour of animals faced with time- and digestive-capacity restraints. 
P. A. Abrams and O. J. Schmitz — 1999(3)  
Keywords: constrained diets, foraging behaviour, functional response, habitat selection, optimal diet, predation risk, time allocation

Adaptation, density dependence and the responses of trophic level abundances to mortality.
Peter Abrams & Matthijs Vos — 2003(8) (abrams@zoo.utoronto.ca)
Keywords: adaptive foraging, bottom-up effect, density dependence, food web, inducible defences, top-down effect, tritrophic system

The energetic cost of competition: Gerbils as moneychangers. 
Zvika Abramsky, Michael L. Rosenzweig & Aziz Subach — 2000(3)  (Zvika@bgumail.bgu.ac.il)
Keywords: arid lands, bioassay, common currency, competition, gerbil, optimal foraging behaviour, sand dunes

Mixed dispersal strategies and response to disturbance.
Jeffrey D. Achter & Colleen T. Webb — 2006(8) (j.achter@colostate.edu)
Keywords: dispersal trade-off, invasion analysis, pair approximation, spatial disturbance

Methods for shape analysis of landmark data from articulated structures.
Dean C. Adams — 1999(8) (dcadams@iastate.edu)
Keywords: articulation, Burnaby's size correction, morphometrics, thin-plate spline

Departure time versus departure rate: How to forage optimally when you are stupid. 
F. R. Adler and M. Kotar — 1999(4)  
Keywords: blundering foragers, error-constrained foraging, Marginal Value Theorem, optimal foraging

Patterns of patch rejection in size-structured populations: beyond the Ideal Free Distribution and size segregation.
Frederick R. Adler, Shane Richards & Andre de Roos — 2001(7) (adler@math.utah.edu)
Keywords: foraging-predation trade-off, ideal free distribution, optimal foraging, size structure

Is there specificity in a defensive mutualism against soil versus lab nematodes, Dictyostelium discoideum farmers and their bacteria?
Boahemaa Adu-Oppong, David C. Queller & Joan E. Strassmann — 2014(4) (badu-oppong@wustl.edu)
Keywords: defensive mutualisms, Dictyostelium discoideum, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oscheius tipulae, bacteria

Infection genetics: gene-for-gene versus matching-alleles models and all points in between.
Aneil Agrawal & Curtis M. Lively — 2002(1) (aagrawal@bio.indiana.edu)
Keywords: evolution of sex, gene-for-gene model, host-parasite co-evolution, matching-alleles model, recombination, Red Queen hypothesis

Natural selection on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) by a community of specialized insect herbivores.
Anurag A. Agrawal — 2005(5) (aa337@cornell.edu)
Keywords: cardenolides, genetic selection analyses, latex, monarch butterfly, plant-insect interactions, quantitative genetic field experiment, trichomes

Younger, weaker white stork (Ciconia ciconia) nestlings become the best breeders.
José I. Aguirre & Pablo Vergara — 2007(2) (jaguirre@bio.ucm.es)
Keywords: counter-selection, fitness, hatching order, individual decisions

Evolutionary diversification of body form and the axial skeleton in the Gasterosteoidei
the sticklebacks and their closest relatives.

Windsor E. Aguirre, Seth E. Contreras, Katelyn M. Carlson, Alex J. Jagla, & Lissette Arellano — 2016(3) (waguirre@depaul.edu)
Keywords: adaptation, body shape, evolution, Gasterosteidae, geometric morphometrics, pleomerism, vertebrae

Extra-pair parentage: a new theory based on transactions in a cooperative game.
Erol Akçay & Joan Roughgarden — 2007(8) (erol@stanford.edu)
Keywords: cooperative games, direct benefits, extra-pair paternity, genetic benefits, negotiation, social selection

Extra-pair paternity in birds: review of the genetic benefits.
Erol Akçay & Joan Roughgarden — 2007(5) (erol@stanford.edu)
Keywords: compatible genes, direct benefits, extra-pair paternity, good genes, meta-analysis

The contingencies of group size and vigilance.
Som B. Ale & Joel S. Brown — 2007(8) (sale1@uic.edu)
Keywords: attraction effect, contingency, dilution effect, fitness, group-size effect, many-eyes effect, predation risk, vigilance behaviour

Effects of range size on species-area relationships.
Andrew P. Allen & Ethan P. White — 2003(4) (drewa@unm.edu)
Keywords: biodiversity, macroecology, power law, range size, spatial scale, species-area relationship, species richness

Sex allocation in the sex-changing marine goby, Coryphopterus personatus, on atoll fringing reefs.
David J. Allsop & Stuart A. West — 2004(6) (David.Allsop@bio.usyd.edu.au)
Keywords: sequential hermaphrodite, sex allocation, sex change, sex ratio, teleost fish

Ecological invasion: spatial clustering and the critical radius.
Andrew Allstadt, Thomas Caraco & G. Korniss — 2007(3) (caraco@albany.edu)
Keywords:cluster growth, invasive species, nucleation theory, spatial competition

Dynamical instabilities lead to sympatric speciation.
Catarina R. Almeida & Fernăo Vistulo de Abreu — 2003(5) (calmeida@bio.ua.pt)
Keywords: complexity, mating systems, sexual competition, sexual selection, sympatric speciation

Conflict between the sexes and cooperation within a sex can alter classic predictions of mating systems theory.
Suzanne Henson Alonzo — 2007(1) (Suzanne.Alonzo@Yale.edu>)
Keywords: game theory, ideal free distribution, mating system, reproductive strategies, sexual conflict

State-dependent habitat selection games between predators and prey: the importance of behavioural interactions and expected lifetime reproductive success.
Suzanne Henson Alonzo — 2002(5) (shalonzo@cats.ucsc.edu)
Keywords: dynamic state variable model, game theory, habitat selection, life history, predator-prey interactions

The effect of sexually antagonistic selection on adaptive sex ratio allocation.
Suzanne H. Alonzo & Barry Sinervo — 2007(7) (suzanne.alonzo@yale.edu)
Keywords: alternative reproductive patterns, female mate choice, game theory, sex allocation, sex ratio, sexual selection, sexually antagonistic selection

Male alternative reproductive behaviours in a Mediterranean wrasse: evidence from otoliths for multiple life-history pathways.
Suzanne Henson Alonzo, Michael Taborsky & Peter Wirtz — 2000(8) (shalonzo@cats.ucsc.edu)  
Keywords: alternative reproductive strategies, bourgeois and parasitic males, life-history pathways, ontogeny

Female choice, conflict between the sexes and the evolution of male alternative reproductive behaviours.
Suzanne Henson Alonzo & R.R. Warner — 2000(2) (shalonzo@cats.ucsc.edu)
Keywords: alternative reproductive behaviours, life-history theory, multi-player dynamic game models, reproductive strategies, sexual conflict

Are Sepkoski's evolutionary faunas dynamically coherent?
John Alroy — 2004(1) (alroy@nceas.ucsb.edu)
Keywords: diversity dynamics, evolutionary faunas, extinction, macroevolution, mammals, marine invertebrates, paleontology

Migratory behaviour and host-parasite co-evolution in natural populations of monarch butterflies infected with a protozoan parasite.
Sonia M. Altizer — 2001(5) (sma33@cornell.edu)
Keywords: co-evolution, Danaus plexippus, host resistance, neogregarine, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, seasonal migration, virulence.

Markov decision evolutionary games with expected average fitness.
Eitan Altman, Y. Hayel, H. Tembine & R. El-Azouzi — 2009(4) (Eitan.Altman@sophia.inria.fr)
Keywords: energy control in wireless networks, evolutionarily stable strategy, evolutionary games, Markov decision process, occupation measure

Ultraviolet reflectance in fruits, ambient light composition, and fruit removal in a tropical forest.
Douglas L. Altshuler — 2001(7) (colibri@uts.cc.utexas.edu)
Keywords: dispersal agent, fruit phenology, fruit removal, light habitat, Psychotria emetica, ultraviolet-reflecting fruits

Trait-mediated indirect effects and complex life-cycles in two European frogs.
Res Altwegg — 2002(4) (altweggr@zool.unizh.ch )
Keywords: Akaike's information criterion, Anax imperator, competition, food web, higher-order interaction, interaction modication, metamorphosis, model selection, predators, Rana lessonae, Rana esculenta, trait-mediated indirect effects

Functional response and prey defence level in an experimental predator-prey system.
Res Altwegg, Margaret Eng, Stephanie Caspersen & Bradley R. Anholt — 2006(1) (altwegg@adu.uct.ac.za)
Keywords: Akaike's information criterion, induced defence, model selection, non-linear mixed effects model, phenotypic plasticity, predator-prey interaction, random effects

Intraspecific hybridisation, developmental stability and fitness in Drosophila mercatorum.
Ditte Holm Andersen, Cino Pertoldi, Valerio Scali & Volker Loeschcke — 2002(4) (ditte.andersen@biology.au.dk)
Keywords: developmental stability, Drosophila mercatorum, fitness, hybridization, outbreeding

Effects of diet-induced resource polymorphism on performance in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus).
Jens Andersson — 2003(2) (jens.andersson@eg.umu.se)
Keywords: competition, geometric morphometrics, performance, phenotypic plasticity, resource polymorphism, Salvelinus alpinus, trade-off

Behavioural and morphological responses to cannibalism in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus).
Jens Andersson & Lennart Persson — 2005(5) (jens.andersson@eg.umu.se)
Keywords: geometric morphometrics, phenotypic plasticity, predation risk, resource polymorphism

Predator complement determines the relative success of tadpoles of the Rana esculenta complex.
Bradley R. Anholt, Sonja Negovetic, Claudia Rauter & Christian Som — 2005(5) (banholt@uvic.ca)
Keywords: activity, co-existence, distribution, habitat segregation, hybridogenesis, predation, Rana esculenta complex, tadpoles

ESS versus Nash: solving evolutionary games.
Joe Apaloo, Joel S. Brown, Gordon G. McNickle, Tania L.S. Vincent & Thomas L. Vincent — 2014(4) (japaloo@stfx.ca)
Keywords: Nash equilibrium, ESS, Darwinian dynamics.

Evolutionary game theory: ESS, convergence stability, and NIS.
Joseph Apaloo, Joel S. Brown & Thomas L. Vincent — 2009(4) (japaloo@stfx.ca)
Keywords: adaptive landscape, convergence stability, Darwinian dynamics, evolutionary game stabilities, evolutionarily stable strategy, neighbourhood invader strategy, strategy dynamics

Evolutionary stabilities in multidimensional-traits and several-species models.
Joe Apaloo & S. Butler — 2009(4) (japaloo@stfx.ca)
Keywords: absolute convergence stability, convergence stability, evolutionary stability, evolutionarily stable strategy, neighbourhood invader strategy, strong convergence stability, strong neighbourhood invader stability

Bioclimatic modelling, morphology, and behaviour reveal alternative mechanisms regulating the distributions of two parapatric salamander species.
Saad Arif, Dean C. Adams & Jill A. Wicknick — 2007(5) (sarif@life.bio.sunysb.edu)
Keywords: aggression, geometric morphometrics, interspecific competition, Plethodon, species' distributions

The evolution of non-random movement along clines.
Paul R. Armsworth — 2008(7) (p.armsworth@sheffield.ac.uk)
Keywords: cline, conditional dispersal, directional dispersal, evolution of dispersal, fitness-dependent dispersal, gene flow, hybrid zone, indirect selection, local adaptation

Behavioural plasticity in an ecological generalist: microhabitat use by western fence lizards.
Dee A. Asbury & Stephen C. Adolph — 2007(5) (adolph@hmc.edu)
Keywords: field experiment, geographic variation, habitat shift, microclimate, nature vs. nurture, thermal biology

Divergence revealed by population crosses in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.
Fathi A. Attia & Tom Tregenza — 2004(6) (T.Tregenza@leeds.ac.uk)
Keywords: cryptic female choice, differential investment, heterosis, inbreeding, outbreeding, sexual conflict, speciation

Topographic and climate change differentially drive Pliocene and Pleistocene mammalian beta diversity of the Great Basin and Great Plains provinces of North America.
Amy Lynn Atwater & Edward Byrd Davis — 2011(8) (edavis@uoregon.edu)
Keywords: alpha diversity, beta diversity, climate change, desert ecosystem, gamma diversity, Great Basin, Great Plains, paleoecology, tectonic change

Balancing selection on size: effects on the incidence of an alternative reproductive tactic.
Nadia Aubin-Horth, Daniel A. J. Ryan, Shawn P. Good & Julian J. Dodson — 2005(8) (Julian.Dodson@bio.ulaval.ca)
Keywords: alternative reproductive tactics, body size, development, fitness, natural selection, phenotypic plasticity, salmonid, survival, threshold trait

Why do female ball pythons (Python regius) coil so tightly around their eggs?
Fabien Aubret, Xavier Bonnet, Richard Shine & Stéphanie Maumelat — 2005(5) (bonnet@cebc.cnrs.fr)
Keywords: brooding, incubation, parental care, phenotypic plasticity, Python regius

Intraguild predation and interspecific co-existence between predatory endotherms.
Maano Aunapuu, Lauri Oksanen, Tarja Oksanen & Erkki Korpimäki — 2010(2) (lauoks@utu.fi)
Keywords: co-existence, exclusion, food chain intraguild predation, omnivory, predation priority effect, stoat, weasel

Nest predation and the evolution of egg appearance in passerine birds in Europe and North America.
Jesús Miguel Avilés, Bĺrd Gunnar Stokke, Arne Moksnes, Eivin Rřskaft & Anders Pape Mřller — 2006(3) (javiles@eeza.csic.es)
Keywords: avian egg appearance, brood parasitism, inter-clutch variation, intra-clutch variation, nest predation, North America versus Europe

Cooperation and non-linear dynamics: An ecological perspective on the evolution of sociality. 
L. Aviles — 1999(4)  
Keywords: Allee effect, chaos, complex systems, cooperation, group selection, population dynamics, sociality

Diminishing return of investment in genetic diversity.
Lars A. Bach, Cino Pertoldi, John A. Vucetich, Volker Loeschcke & Per Lundberg — 2012(7) (lbach@cs.au.dk)
Keywords: adaptive potential, biodiversity, conservation, diminishing returns, genetic diversity, return of investment

On the evolution of conditional dispersal under environmental and demographic stochasticity.
Lars A. Bach, J. Ripa & Per Lundberg — 2007(4) (lbach@cs.au.dk)
Keywords: conditional dispersal, density dependence, environmental noise, evolutionary trajectory, individual-based, stochasticity

Is there a trade-off between energetics and spleen mass? A quantitative genetic study in the leaf-eared mouse.
Leonardo D. Bacigalupe, Roberto F. Nespolo, Diego. M. Bustamante & Francisco Bozinovic — 2005(3) (l.bacigalupe@sheffield.ac.uk)
Keywords: energetics, heritability, spleen, trade-off

Developmental perspective on the evolution of sexual ornaments.
Alexander V. Badyaev — 2004(7) (abadyaev@email.arizona.edu)
Keywords: integration, modularity, sexual displays, sexual selection, signals

Latitude, population size, and the language-farming dispersal hypothesis.
Drew H. Bailey, Marcus J. Hamilton & Robert S. Walker — 2012(8) (drewhalbailey@cmu.edu)
Keywords: agriculture, biogeography, humans, language-farming dispersal hypothesis, population size

Does immunity vary with population density in wild populations of Mormon crickets?
Nathan W. Bailey, Brian Gray & Marlene Zuk — 2008(4) (nathanb@ucr.edu)
Keywords: Anabrus simplex, density-dependent prophylaxis, ecological immunology, encapsulation, lysozyme activity

Empty flowers as a pollination-enhancement strategy.
Susan F. Bailey, Anna L. Hargreaves, Sarah D. Hechtenthal, Robert A. Laird, Tanya M. Latty, Tyler G. Reid, Andrew C. Teucher & Jeffrey R. Tindall — 2007(8) (rlaird@connect.carleton.ca)
Keywords: cross-pollination, geitonogamy, inbreeding depression, male function, nectar, nectarless flowers, outcrossing, reward, self-pollination

Differential patterns of plasticity to water availability along native and naturalized latitudinal gradients.
Thomas D. Baird, Christopher A. Henson, Nicholas M. Daily, Gregory V. Baccari & Courtney J. Murren — 2011(1) (murrenc@cofc.edu)
Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, cline, phenotypic plasticity, water availability

The implications of pelvic reduction in threespine stickleback for long-term persistence of populations.
John A. Baker, Lauren A. Ackein, David C. Heins, Richard W. King & Susan A. Foster — 2013(3) (jbaker@clarku.edu)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, conservation, extinction, population fluctuation, stickleback

Life-history differentiation of benthic and limnetic ecotypes in a polytypic population of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).
John A. Baker, William A. Cresko, Susan A. Foster & David C. Heins — 2005(1) (jbaker@clarku.edu)
Keywords: benthic-limnetic, ecotype, egg size, gene flow, life history, polytypic variation, resource-use polymorphism, sympatric speciation, threespine stickleback

Genetic and plastic contributions to trait divergence between parapatric habitats: female life-history traits in threespine stickleback within the Misty Lake system.
John A. Baker, Katja Räsänen, Jean-Sébastien Moore & Andrew P. Hendry — 2013(4) (jbaker@clarku.edu)
Keywords: ecological speciation, gene flow, parapatry, plasticity, stickleback

Long-term changes in the role of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in the White Sea: predatory fish consumption reflects fluctuating stickleback abundance during the last century.
Bakhvalova A.E., Ivanova T.S., Ivanov M.V., Demchuk A.S., Movchan E.A. & Lajus D.L. — 2016(3) (dlajus@gmail.com)
Keywords: Atlantic cod, Eleginus nawaga, European sculpin, Gadus morhua, Gasterosteus aculeatus, long-term changes, Myoxocephalus scorpius, predation, saffron cod, threespine stickleback, White Sea

No evidence of sex reversal by means of experimentally altered sex ratios in threespine stickleback.
Theo C. M. Bakker — 2016(2) (tbakker@evolution.uni-bonn.de)
Keywords: Gasterosteus aculeatus, male removal, sex determination, sex ratio, social cues, threespine stickleback.

The upper limit for the exponent of Taylor's power law is a consequence of deterministic population growth.
Ford Ballantyne IV — 2005(8) (fballantyne@ucsd.edu)
Keywords: deterministic dynamics, population growth, scaling, stochasticity, Taylor's power law

Resource allocation in the dioecious shrub Rhamnus alpinus: the hidden costs of reproduction.
María-José Bańuelos & José-Ramón Obeso — 2004(3) (mjbm@kvl.dk)
Keywords: growth rate, hierarchical structure, sex ratio, sexual dimorphism, trade-offs

Continuous coexistence or discrete species? A new review of an old question.
György Barabás, Simone Pigolotti, Mats Gyllenberg, Ulf Dieckmann & Géza Meszéna — 2012(5) (dysordys@umich.edu)
Keywords: competition kernel, dynamical stability, kinked kernel, limiting similarity, Lotka-Volterra models, niche axis, structural robustness, structural stability

Evolutionary rescue in novel environments: Towards improving predictability.
Michael Barfield & Robert D. Holt — 2016(6) (mjb01@ufl.edu)
Keywords: environmental change, extinction, heritability, individual-based model.

Effects of Oligo-Miocene global climate changes on mammalian species richness in the northwestern quarter of the USA.
Anthony D. Barnosky & Marc A. Carrasco — 2002(6) (barnosky@socrates.berkeley.edu )
Keywords: climate change, mammals, Miocene, Oligocene, palaeontology, species richness

Estimating reaction norms for age and size at maturation when age at first reproduction is unknown.
Sébastien Barot, Mikko Heino, Loretta O'Brien & Ulf Dieckmann — 2004(5) (barot@bondy.ird.fr)
Keywords: maturation dynamics, phenotypic plasticity, probability of maturing, reaction norm, robustness assessment

Reproductive plasticity in an Amazonian palm.
S. Barot, D. Mitja, I. Miranda, G. D. Meija & M. Grimaldi — 2005(7) (Sebastien.Barot@bondy.ird.fr)
Keywords: Amazon, palm tree, phenotypic plasticity, rain forest, reproduction, sex allocation

Spatial and temporal female frequency variation in a plant with joint nuclear and cytoplasmic sex determination.
Camille M. Barr — 2008(6) (camille.barr@mso.umt.edu)
Keywords: cytoplasmic male sterility, genomic conflict, gynodioecy, nuclear-cytoplasmic sex inheritance, sex ratio

Coinfection, kin selection, and the rate of host exploitation by a parasitic nematode.
Farrah Bashey, Levi T. Morran & Curtis M. Lively — 2007(6) (fbasheyv@indiana.edu)
Keywords: competition, evolution of virulence, experimental evolution, kin selection, Steinernema carpocapsae, Xenorhabdus nematophila

Defence against the herbicide RoundUp® predates its widespread use.
Regina S. Baucom & Rodney Mauricio — 2010(1) (gbaucom@uga.edu)
Keywords: adaptation, agro-ecosystem, evolution, Ipomoea purpurea, resistance, tolerance

Delayed maturation in birds in relation to social foraging and breeding competition.
Guy Beauchamp — 2003(4) (guy.beauchamp@umontreal.ca)
Keywords: birds, breeding competition, cooperative breeding, delayed maturation, flocking, pairwise comparative method, plumage dichromatism

A comparative study of breeding traits in colonial birds.
G. Beauchamp — 1999(2)  
Keywords: birds, clutch size, colonial breeding, egg mass, pairwise comparative method

Is there a relationship between forebrain size and group size in birds?
Guy Beauchamp & Esteban Fernández-Juricic — 2004(6) (guy.beauchamp@umontreal.ca)
Keywords: birds, flock size, forebrain size, phylogenetic analysis, social complexity hypothesis

Social foraging and the evolution of white avian plumage.
Guy Beauchamp & Philipp Heeb — 2001(6) ( beauchgu@medvet.umontreal.ca)
Keywords: birds, flash marks, pairwise comparative method, social foraging, white plumage

Short-term evolution of competition between genetically homogeneous and heterogeneous populations of Drosophila melanogaster
M. Becerra, I. Brichette & C. Garcia — 1999(5)  
Keywords: co-existence, evolution of sex, genetic homogeneity, intraspecific competition

The effect of packing constraints on optimal investment in offspring.
Christopher W. Beck & Robert E. Beck — 2005(7) (christopher.beck@emory.edu)
Keywords: clutch size, life-history evolution, morphological constraints, optimal egg size, reproductive allocation, reproductive effort, reproductive investment

Evolution of female mate choice based on male age: are older males better mates?
Christopher W. Beck & Larkin Powell — 2000(1) (cbeck@biology.emory.edu)
Keywords: age effects, age-specific survival, female mate choice, genetic algorithm, genetic quality, good genes, life-history evolution, sexual selection

A genetic algorithm approach to study the evolution of female preference based on male age.
Christopher W. Beck, Beth Shapiro, Semil Choksi & Daniel E. L. Promislow — 2002(2) (cbeck@biology.emory.edu)
Keywords: age effects, genetic algorithm, mate choice, senescence, sexual selection

Extending the study of range-abundance relations to tropical insects: sphingid moths in Southeast Asia.
Jan Beck, Ian J. Kitching & K. Eduard Linsenmair — 2006(4) (jan.beck@gmx.net)
Keywords: density, distribution, macroecology, meta-analysis

A mitochondrial DNA analysis of vicariant speciation in two lineages in the Drosophila mulleri subgroup.
Andrew T. Beckenbach, William B. Heed & William J. Etges — 2008(4) (beckenba@sfu.ca)
Keywords: cactus, Drosophila mulleri subgroup, Drosophila repleta group, mtDNA, Sonoran Desert, speciation

Winner and loser effects and the development of dominance relationships in young coyotes: an integration of data and theory.
Marc Bekoff & Lee A. Dugatkin — 2000(7) (bekoffm@spot.colorado.edu)
Keywords: canids, carnivores, coyotes, development, dominance, winner—loser effects

Contemporary evolution, allelic recycling, and adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback.
Michael A. Bell & Windsor E. Aguirre — 2013(4) (mabell@life.bio.sunysb.edu)
Keywords: evolutionary genomics, Gasterosteus aculeatus, introgression, invasive species, parallelism, recessive allele, threespine stickleback

Reintroduction of threespine stickleback into Cheney and Scout Lakes, Alaska.
Michael A. Bell, David C. Heins, Matthew A. Wund, Frank A. von Hippel, Robert Massengil, Kristine Dunker, Glenn A. Bristow & Windsor E. Aguirre — 2016(2) (michael.bell@stonybrook.edu)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, Cheney Lake, colonizing species, contemporary evolution, experimental evolution, Gasterosteus aculeatus, parasite, Schistocephalus solidus, Scout Lake, threespine stickleback.

Observations on non-additive predation: birds and grasshoppers.
Gary E. Belovsky & J. B. Slade — 2010(6) (belovsky.1@nd.edu)
Keywords: birds, compensatory mortality, foraging, grasshoppers, non-additive mortality, predation

Evolutionary fitness in ecology: Comparing measures of fitness in stochastic, density-dependent environments.
T.G. Benton & A. Grant — 2000(6) (t.g.benton@stir.ac.uk)
Keywords: density dependence, evolutionarily unbeatable strategy, fitness, invasion exponent, Lyapunov exponent, life history, lifetime reproductive success, reproductive effort, stochasticity

Asymmetric competition, body size, and foraging tactics: testing the ideal free distribution in two competing fish species.
Michal Berec, Vlastimil Křivan and Luděk Berec — 2006(5) ( michal.berec@bf.jcu.cz)
Keywords: allopatric species, asymmetric competition, body size, habitat preference, ideal free distribution, interference

Spatiotemporal analysis shows stable genetic differentiation and barriers to dispersal in the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.).
Sara Bergek & Jens Olsson — 2009(5) (sara.bergek@ebc.uu.se)
Keywords: barriers to gene flow, microsatellites, Perca fluviatilis L., small-scale genetic divergence, spatiotemporal stability

Towards a theory of mutual mate choice: lessons from two-sided matching.
Carl T. Bergstrom & Les Real — 2000(4) (LReal@biology.emory.edu)
Keywords: assortative mating, coalitions, game theory, group formation, mating systems, sexual selection

Modelling the energy-mortality trade-offs of invertebrate decorating behaviour.
Sarah K. Berke, Matthew Miller & Sarah A. Woodin — 2006(8) (berke@biol.sc.edu)
Keywords: camouflage, covering, defence, ornamentation, masking, predation, reproductive potential, selection

Heritability of acoustic signalling time in the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis.
Susan M. Bertram, Darrell J. Kemp, Jennifer S. Johnson, S. Xochitl Orozco & Root Gorelick — 2007(6) (Susan_Bertram@carleton.ca)
Keywords: calling time, dominance, environmental variance, Gryllidae, heritability, maternal effects, Texas field cricket

Heteromorphic and isomorphic alternations of generations in macroalgae as adaptations to a seasonal environment.
Kazuhiro Bessho & Yoh Iwasa — 2009(5) (yohiwasa@kyudai.jp)
Keywords: alternation of generations, heteromorphic life cycle, isomorphic life cycle, life-history diversity, macroalgae, seasonal environment

Conditional strategies in an animal-pollinated plant: size-dependent adjustment of gender and rewards.
Jay M Biernaskie & Elizabeth Elle — 2005(6) (jmbierna@zoo.utoronto.ca)
Keywords: bumblebees, Chamerion, Epilobium, inflorescence design, nectar gradient, nectar production rate, patch departure, pollen dispensing, sex allocation

The morphology, flight, and flocking behaviour of migrating raptors.
Robert W. Black & Alyssa Borowske — 2009(3) (bblack@cornellcollege.edu)
Keywords: autumn migration, flight style, flocking behaviour, morphology, raptor

Mating with a large yellow dung fly male: costs or benefits in terms of clutch size?
Wolf U. Blanckenhorn, Alexandre Ding, Paul I. Ward, Patricia Meile, Yvonne Teuschl, Constanze Reim, Oliver Y. Martin & David J. Hosken — 2002(8) (wolfman@zoolmus.unizh.ch)
Keywords: body size, cryptic female choice, fecundity, mating costs, Scathophaga stercoraria, Scatophaga, sexual conflict, sexual selection

Rapid evolution toward equal sex ratios in a system with heterogamety. 
M. Blows, D. Berrigan and G. Gilchrist — 1999(3)  
Keywords: heterogamety, interspecific hybrids, natural selection, sex ratios

The interplay between thermal tolerance and life history is associated with the biogeography of Drosophila species.
Francisca Boher, Raúl Godoy-Herrera & Francisco Bozinovic — 2010(8) (fbozinovic@bio.puc.cl)
Keywords: acclimation, biogeography, Drosophila, life history, thermal tolerances polygons

Phylogenetic effects on morphological, life-history, behavioural and ecological traits of birds. 
K. Böhning-Gaese and R. Oberrath — 1999(3)  (boehning@bio2.rwth-aachen.de)
Keywords: avian traits, behaviour, ecology, life history, Mantel permutation tests, morphology, phylogenetic effects, phylogenetic relatedness

Factors influencing the clutch size, number of broods and annual fecundity of North American and European land birds.
Katrin Böhning-Gaese, B. Halbe, N. Lemoine & R. Oberrath — 2000(7) (boehning@bio2.rwth-aachen.de)
Keywords: body size, broods, clutch size, fecundity, land birds, latitude, migratory behaviour, nestling development

Superinfections and adaptive dynamics of pathogen virulence revisited: a critical function analysis.
Barbara Boldin, Stefan A. H. Geritz & Éva Kisdi — 2009(2) (eva.kisdi@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, co-existence of pathogen strains, critical function analysis, evolutionary branching, superinfection model, trade-off, virulence evolution

Disease as a selective force precluding widespread cannibalism: A case study of an iridovirus of tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum.
Benjamin M. Bolker, Francisco de Castro, Andrew Storfer, Stephen Mech, Erik Harvey & James P. Collins — 2008(1) (bolker@zoo.ufl.edu)
Keywords: Ambystoma tigrinum, cannibalism, disease, iridovirus, selection

Partitioning the relative fitness effects of diet and trophic morphology in the threespine stickleback.
Daniel I. Bolnick & Márcio S. Araújo — 2011(5) (danbolnick@mail.utexas.edu)
Keywords: directional selection, frequency-dependent selection, fitness landscape, function-valued trait, Gasterosteus aculeatus, stabilizing selection, stable isotopes, trophic morphology

Optimizing prey-capture behaviour to maximize expected net benefit.
Daniel I. Bolnick & Lara A. Ferry-Graham — 2002(6) (danbolnick@mail.utexas.edu )
Keywords: capture success, foraging costs, modulation, optimal foraging theory, prey-capture

Body size divergence promotes post-zygotic reproductive isolation in centrarchids.
Daniel I. Bolnick, Thomas J. Near & Peter C. Wainwright — 2006(5) (danbolnick@mail.utexas.edu)
Keywords: genetic incompatibility, hybridization, reproductive isolation, speciation

Morphological and dietary differences between individuals are weakly but positively correlated within a population of threespine stickleback.
Daniel I. Bolnick & Jeffrey S. Paull — 2009(8) (danbolnick@austin.utexas.edu)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, Gasterosteus aculeatus, individual specialization, niche evolution, niche variation

Parasite virulence and host resistance in a slave-making ant community.
Jeremy M. Bono, Michael F. Antolin & Joan M. Herbers — 2006(6) (Jeremy_bono@sfu.ca)
Keywords: co-evolution, Formicidae, Polyergus, social parasites, virulence

Heritability of spider ballooning motivation under different wind velocities.
Dries Bonte & Luc Lens — 2007(5) (dries.bonte@ugent.be)
Keywords: dispersal, Pardosa, saltmarsh, selection, threshold model

Evolution of high-frequency communication in frogs.
Arjan Boonman & Hellen Kurniati — 2011(2) (arjan.boonman@gmx.net)
Keywords: acoustic, communication, evolution, frog, Huia masonii, ultrasonic

Kinship and cannibalism in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella: No evidence of kin discrimination.
Michael Boots — 2000(2) (mike@biology.kyushu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: cannibalism, discrimination, fitness costs, insect, kin selection, siblings

Hydra as a model organism to teach biology in secondary schools.
Patricia E. Bossert — 2009(3) (pbossert@optonline.net)
Keywords: gene expression, hydra model, phototaxis, regeneration, teaching secondary school inquiry-based biology

Using Drosophila melanogaster to test the effect of multiple introductions on a non-native population's ability to adapt to novel environments.
Frank A. Bouchard, Suzanna L. Lewis, Chelsea B. Marcus, Gabriela M. McBride & Marta L. Wayne — 2011(6) (Fab22@ufl.edu)
Keywords: adaptation, effective population size, inbreeding depression, invasive species, multiple introductions, recombination, transgressive segregation

Evolutionary branching/speciation: contrasting results from systems with explicit or emergent carrying capacities.
Roger G. Bowers, Andrew White, Michael Boots, Stefan A.H. Geritz & Éva Kisdi — 2003(6) (A.R.White@hw.ac.uk)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, carrying capacity, evolutionary branching, speciation

Temperature variability and thermal performance in ectotherms: acclimation, behaviour, and experimental considerations.
Francisco Bozinovic, Pablo Sabat, Enrico L. Rezende & Mauricio Canals — 2016(1) (fbozinovic@bio.puc.cl)
Keywords: acclimation, global warming, performance variance, thermal variability.

Long-term repeatability of body mass and body temperature (but not basal metabolism) in the free ranging leaf-eared mouse.
Francisco Bozinovic — 2007(3) (fbozinovic@bio.puc.cl)
ERRATUM — 2007(6)
Keywords: energetics, heritable variation, long-term field physiology, repeatability, small mammals

Acclimation to daily thermal variability drives the metabolic performance curve.
Francisco Bozinovic, Tamara P. Catalan, Sergio A. Estay & Pablo Sabat — 2013(5) (fbozinovic@bio.puc.cl)
Keywords: fitness, global warming, physiological responses, thermal variability

Thermal tolerances in rodents: species that evolved in cold climates exhibit a wider thermoneutral zone.
Francisco Bozinovic, Francisco Ferri-Yáñez, Hugo Naya, Miguel B. Araújo & Daniel E. Naya — 2014(2) (fbozinovic@bio.puc.cl)
Keywords: macrophysiology, energetics, environmental temperature, global ecology, climate change, small mammals

Choice of regression model for isodar analysis.
Jack W. Bradbury & Sandra L. Vehrencamp — 2014(8) (jwb25@cornell.edu)
Keywords: equation error, isodars, measurement error, Model II regression.

Species richness on trees: a comparison of parasitic fungi and insects.
Martin Brändle & Roland Brandl — 2003(6) (braendle@staff.uni-marburg.de)
Keywords: insects, parasitic fungi, species-area relationship, species richness

Range sizes in butterflies: correlation across scales.
Martin Brändle, Sabine Öhlschläger & Roland Brandl — 2002(7) (braendle@mailer.uni-marburg.de)
Keywords: body size, butterflies, distribution, geographical scale, life-history traits, macroecology, niche breadth

Dietary niche breadth for Central European birds: correlations with species specific traits.
Martin Brändle, Andreas Prinzing, Robert Pfeifer, Roland Brandl — 2002(5) (braendle@mailer.uni-marburg.de)
Keywords: body size, distributional range size, habitat breadth, macroecology, migration, sexual selection

Modeling the ecology and evolution of communities: a review of past achievements, current efforts, and future promises.
Åke Brännström, Jacob Johansson, Nicolas Loeuille, Nadiah Kristensen, Tineke Troost, Reinier Hille Ris Lambers & Ulf Dieckmann — 2012(5) (ake.brannstrom@math.umu.se)
Keywords: coexistence, community ecology, community evolution, niche theory, trait-based models

Effects of a parasitic mite on life history variation in two grasshopper species.
David H. Branson — 2003(3) (dbranson@ars.usda.gov)
Keywords: Eutrombidium locustorum, Melanoplus sanguinipes, parasitism, reproductive allocation

Hybridization due to changing species distributions: adding problems or solutions to conservation of biodiversity during global change?
Adrian C Brennan, Guy Woodward, Ole Seehausen, Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes, Craig Moritz, Anis Guelmami, Richard J. Abbott & Pim Edelaar — 2014(6) (edelaar@upo.es)
Keywords: adaptive potential, biodiversity loss, conservation management, ecological network, global change, hybridization

Natural selection on individual clutch size — laying date trends in the Ural owl.
Jon E. Brommer, Hannu Pietiäinen & Heikki Kolunen — 2003(2) (jon.brommer@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: clutch size-laying date trend, life history, lifetime reproductive success, phenotypic plasticity, Strix uralensis, Ural owl

Genetically based population divergence of Silene latifolia from two climate regions.
Amanda N. Brothers, Laura A. Weingartner & Lynda F. Delph — 2016(5) (ldelph@indiana.edu)
Keywords: climate, ecological divergence, ecotypes, phenotypic plasticity, sexual dimorphism

On the evolution of claustral colony-founding in ants.
Mark J.F. Brown & Sebastian Bonhoeffer — 2003(2) (mabrown@tcd.ie)
Keywords: ants, colony founding, evolution, Formicidae, mortality, semi-claustral

Vigilance, patch use and habitat selection: foraging under predation risk. 
J. S. Brown — 1999(1)  (squirrel@uic.edu)
Keywords: ecology of fear, foraging theory, giving-up density, habitat selection, patch use, predation risk, quitting harvest rate, time allocation, vigilance

Adaptive dynamics with vector-valued strategies.
Joel S. Brown, Yosef Cohen & Thomas L. Vincent — 2007(5) (squirrel@uic.edu)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, Darwinian dynamics, evolutionarily stable strategy, evolutionary game theory, tragedy of the commons, vector-valued strategy

Simulation of spatial movement that potentially maximizes assessment, presence, and defence in territorial and home-ranging animals, with special reference to territorial sex-changing fishes.
Thomas R. Brown, Joshua Jowers & Marvin M.F. Lutnesky — 2011(6) (marv.lutnesky@enmu.edu)
Keywords: computer model, fish, movement, swimming, territoriality

Testing assumptions of the trade-off theory of the evolution of parasite virulence.
Jesse L. Brunner & James P. Collins — 2009(8) (jbrunner@esf.edu)
Keywords: evolution of virulence, ranavirus, tiger salamander, trade-off theory, transmissibility

Virulence evolution in a host-parasite system in the absence of viral evolution.
J. Brusini, Yi-lin Wang, L. F. Matos, L.-Sara Sylvestre, B. M. Bolker & Marta L. Wayne — 2013(8) (mlwayne@ufl.edu)
Keywords: host–parasite co-evolution, Drosophila melanogaster, DMelSV, sigma virus, rhabdovirus, virulence evolution

Testing the persistence of phenotypic plasticity after incubation in the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis.
Christine R. Buckley, Maddalena Jackson, Mina Youssef, Duncan J. Irschick & Stephen C. Adolph — 2007(1) (crcbuck@gmail.com>)
Keywords: incubation, performance, phenotypic plasticity, Sceloporus occidentalis, thermoregulation

Geographic variation in lizard hind-limb morphology in relation to predation: no evidence for an evolutionary basis.
Patrick A. Bula, Laura K. Wright & Peter A. Zani — 2014(8) (pzani@uwsp.edu)
Keywords: ecomorphology, morphometrics, phenotypic plasticity, predator type, Uta stansburiana.

Optimal energy allocation to ovaries after spawning.
David B. Bunnell & Elizabeth A. Marschall — 2003(3) (Bunnell.6@osu.edu)
Keywords: dynamic programming, optimal energy allocation, Pomoxis annularis, reproduction, timing, uncertainty

On size and extinction: a random walk model predicts the body size of lowest risk for mammals.
Oskar Burger & Lev Ginzburg — 2009(7) (oskar@unm.edu)
Keywords: allometry, Damuth rule, generation time, mammal body size distribution, optimal size, population variability, probability of extinction

Plant endemism in the central Namib Desert.
Antje Burke — 2007(2) (antje@enviro-science.info)
Keywords: arid lands, biogeography, climate change, evolution, growth forms, southern Africa

Macroevolutionary trade-offs in the tephritid genus Urophora: benefits and costs of an improved plant gall.
Berit Burkhardt & Helmut Zwölfer — 2002(1) (h.zwoelfer@freenet.de)
Keywords: effect of nitrogen, evolution of plant galls, host plant quality, host range, interspecific competition, oviposition behaviour, Tephritidae, Urophora

Does mimicry occur between fleshy-fruits?
Kevin C. Burns — 2005(7) (kevin.burns@vuw.ac.nz)
Keywords: birds, fleshy-fruits, frugivore, fruit colour, mutualism, seed dispersal

The cost of mating and the relationship between body size and fitness in males of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis.
Maxwell N. Burton-Chellew, Edward M. Sykes, Sophie Patterson, David M. Shuker, & Stuart A. West — 2007(6) (m.burton@sms.ed.ac.uk)
Keywords: brood size, clutch size, local mate competition, longevity, sex allocation, sex ratio

Adaptation during biological invasions and the case of Adelges tsugae.
Elizabeth Butin, Adam H. Porter & Joseph Elkinton — 2005(6) (aporter@ent.umass.edu)
Keywords: adaptation, asexual reproduction, cold tolerance, eastern hemlock, environmental extremes, hemlock woolly adelgid, invasive species, mutation limitation, Tsuga canadensis

Effects of colonization history and landscape structure on genetic variation within and among threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations in a single watershed.
Eric J. Caldera & Daniel I. Bolnick — 2008(4) (danbolnick@mail.utexas.edu)
Keywords: divergence, landscape genetics, microsatellite, migration, population structure

Light-sensitive plasticity genes in Arabidopsis thaliana: Mutant analysis and ecological genetics. 
Hilary S. Callahan, C.L. Wells & M. Pigliucci — 1999(6) (callahan@utk.edu
Keywords: cryptochrome, epistasis, flowering time, life-history evolution, phenotypic plasticity, photomorphogenesis

An ecological twist on the morphology-performance-fitness axis.
Ryan Calsbeek — 2008(2) (ryan.calsbeek@Dartmouth.edu)
Keywords: anole, island, lizard, locomotor performance, selection

Multiple paternity and sperm storage lead to increased genetic diversity in Anolis lizards.
Ryan Calsbeek, Camille Bonneaud, Setal Prabhu, Nicholas Manoukis & Thomas B. Smith — 2007(3) (ryan.calsbeek@dartmouth.edu)
Keywords: island, lizard, multiple paternity, sexual selection, sperm

Induced mutations: a novel tool to study phenotypic integration and evolutionary constraints in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Mark D. Camara, Carrie A. Ancell & Massimo Pigliucci — 2000(8) (camara@lifesci.ucsb.edu)   Keywords: Arabidopsis, canalization, genetic constraints, mutation, phenotypic covariance, pleiotropy

The evolution of fighting structures in hartebeest.
Isabella Capellini & Leonard Morris Gosling — 2006(6) (Isabella.Capellini@durham.ac.uk)Keywords: Alcelaphus, horns, natural selection, sexual dimorphism, sexual selection

Host-jumping, demographic stochasticity and extinction: lytic viruses.
Thomas Caraco, Ahmad Yousefi & Ing-Nang Wang — 2014(7) (tcaraco@albany.edu)
Keywords: burst-size variance, host-range expansion, lysis-time variation, viral extinction

Natural selection acting on body size, growth rate, and compensatory growth: an empirical test in a wild trout population.
Stephanie M. Carlson, Andrew P. Hendry & Benjamin H. Letcher — 2004(7) (scar@u.washington.edu)
Keywords: brown trout, compensatory growth, correlational selection, costs of growth, life-history trade-offs, Salmo trutta

Host susceptibility and spread of disease in a metapopulation of Silene dioica.
Ulla Carlsson-Granér & Tor Mikael Pettersson — 2005(3) (ulla.carlsson-graner@emg.umu.se)
Keywords: disease, evolution, metapopulation, Microbotryum violaceum, Silene dioica, susceptibility, turnover

The impact of host longevity on disease transmission: host-pathogen dynamics and the evolution of resistance.
Ulla Carlsson-Granér & Peter H. Thrall — 2006(4) (ulla.carlsson-graner@emg.umu.se)
Keywords: disease dynamics, disease transmission, evolution of resistance, host longevity, Microbotryum violaceum, spatial structure, sterilizing pathogen

Genetic differences between early- and late-breeding Eurasian kestrels.
Stefania Casagrande, Giacomo Dell'Omo, David Costantini & James Tagliavini — 2006(6) (casagrande@biol.unipr.it)
Keywords: clutch size, Eurasian kestrel, genetic differentiation, laying date, microsatellites, population genetics, timing of breeding

A comparative analysis of the relative success of introduced land birds on islands.
Phillip Cassey — 2003(7) (cassey@biologie.ens.fr)
Keywords: biogeographic regions, introduction success, islands, land birds, mainland continents

Are Japanese freshwater populations of threespine stickleback derived from the Pacific Ocean lineage?
Lara M. Cassidy, Mark Ravinet, Seiichi Mori & Jun Kitano — 2013(3) (jkitano@lab.nig.ac.jp)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, microsatellites, phylogeography, stickleback

Adaptive latitudinal shifts in the thermal physiology of a terrestrial isopod.
Luis E. Castańeda, Marco A. Lardies & Francisco Bozinovic — 2004(4) (mlardies@genes.bio.puc.cl
Keywords: ectotherm, thermal sensitivity, thermal tolerance, latitudinal gradient, local adaptation, temperature

Does quality affect growth rate and age at maturity in species with indeterminate growth?
Sergio Castellano & Giorgia Cadeddu — 2011(8) (sergio.castellano@unito.it)
Keywords: amphibian, game theory, life-history theory, lifetime reproductive success, mate choice, sexual selection, skeletochronology

A cost to chimerism in Dictyostelium discoideum on natural substrates.
David I. Castillo, Ghislaine T. Switz, Kevin R. Foster, David C. Queller & Joan E. Strassmann — 2005(2) (navais@rice.edu)
Keywords: chimera, conflict, cooperation, social amoebae

Pathogen- and diet-dependent foraging, nutritional and immune ecology in mealworms.
Tamara P. Catalán, Matías Barceló, Hermann M. Niemeyer, Alexis M. Kalergis & Francisco Bozinovic — 2011(7) (tpcatala@uc.cl)
Keywords: antibacterial activity, dietary nutrients, ecoimmunology, feeding, haemocytes, phenoloxidase activity, Tenebrio molitor

Gompertz mortality, natural selection, and the 'shape of ageing.'
Eric L. Charnov — 2014(5) (RLC@UNM.EDU)
Keywords: rate of living, maturation, fish, senescence, mortality rate

Body size is the history of life: growth confronting landscapes of death.
Eric L. Charnov — 2011(5) (RLC@unm.edu)
Keywords: body size, fossil record, macroecology, macroevolution, mortality-external source

Optimal (plastic) life histories in growing versus stable populations.
Eric L. Charnov — 2009(6) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: allometry, dimensionless, metabolic ecology, norm-of-reaction, r/k-selection

Reproductive effort is inversely proportional to average adult life span.
Eric L. Charnov — 2005(8) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: allometry, life history, optimization, trade-offs, Williams' hypothesis

Mammal life-history evolution with size-dependent mortality.
Eric L. Charnov — 2005(5) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: allometry, life span, maturation, optimization, sensitivity analysis

Shrimp equalize marginal payoffs in an evolutionary game with condition dependence.
Eric L. Charnov — 2004(4) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: condition-dependent ESS, frequency distribution, game theory, sex allocation

The optimal balance between growth rate and survival in mammals.
Eric L. Charnov — 2004(2) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: allometry, life histories, life span, product rule, reproductive effort

Cohort-size/body-size scaling rules for stationary populations.
Eric L. Charnov — 2003(7) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: allometry, growth, mortality, population dynamics, trees

Reproductive effort, offspring size and benefit-cost ratios in the classification of life histories.
Eric L. Charnov — 2002(5) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: life-history cube, Smith-Fretwell, dimensionless numbers, r & K selection, classification—life histories

Reproductive efficiencies in the evolution of life histories.
Eric L. Charnov — 2001(7) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: offspring size, reproductive effort, stationary populations

Evolution of mammal life histories.
Eric L. Charnov — 2001(5) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: allometry, dimensionless life histories, scaling rules, stationary populations.

Evolution of life history variation among species of altricial birds. 
Eric L. Charnov — 2000(3) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: allometry, birds, density dependence, dimensional analysis, life-history allometry, population regulation, production

Thermal time: body size, food quality and the 10°C rule.
Eric L. Charnov & James F. Gillooly — 2003(1) (gillooly@unm.edu)
Keywords: degree days, growth, temperature, threshold temperature

Shrimp adjust sex ratio to fluctuating age distributions.
Eric L. Charnov & Robert W. Hannah — 2002(2) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: evolutionarily stable strategy, fisheries, frequency dependence, protandry, recruitment variation

Density dependent invariance, dimensionless life-histories and the energy-equivalence rule.
Eric Charnov, John Paul Haskell & S.K.Morgan Ernest — 2001(1) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: allometry, density independence, juvenile survival, macroecology, mammals

Dimensionless invariants for the optimal size (age) of sex change.
Eric Charnov & Unnur Skúladóttir — 2000(8) (rlc@unm.edu)
Keywords: dimensionless analysis, evolutionarily stable strategy, life history, sex allocation

Average adult size in female lizards.
Eric L. Charnov & Robin Warne — 2011(7) (RLC@unm.edu)
Keywords: Bertalanffy growth, growth curve, indeterminate growth, life-history strategy, r/K selection

Growth, mortality, and life-history scaling across species.
Eric L. Charnov & Wenyun Zuo — 2011(6) (RLC@unm.edu)
Keywords: allometry, body size, fish, maturity, optimal life history

Human hunting mortality threshold rules for extinction in mammals (& fish).
Eric L. Charnov & Wenyun Zuo — 2011(4) (RLC@UNM.EDU)
Keywords: exploitation-caused extinction, fisheries-extinction, life span allometry, mammals, population recruitment

Field heritabilities and lack of correlation of snail shell form and anti-predator function estimated using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods.
Johel Chaves-Campos, Lyndon M. Coghill, Manalle A. Al-Salamah, Thomas J. DeWitt & Steven G. Johnson — 2012(6) (SGJohnson@uno.edu)
Keywords: animal model, anti-predator traits, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo, form → function → fitness, geometric morphometrics, quantitative genetics, response to selection, restricted maximum likelihood

Why is there a tropical-temperate disparity in the genetic diversity and taxonomy of species?
Andrew A. Chek, James D. Austin & Stephen C. Lougheed — 2003(1) (lougheed@biology.queensu.ca)
Keywords: allozymes, biodiversity, bootstrap, genetic disparity, latitudinal gradient, Nearctic, Neotropics, phenotype, species richness, taxonomy

The quantitative assessment of the benefits of physiological integration in clonal plants.
Peter Chesson & Andrew G. Peterson — 2002(8) (PLChesson@UCDavis.edu )
Keywords: fitness, non-linear averaging, paired-section experiment, physiological integration, relative growth rate, spatial heterogeneity

Patterns in procellariiform diversity as a test of species-energy theory in marine systems. 
S. L. Chown and K. J. Gaston — 1999(3)  (slchown@zoology.up.ac.za)
Keywords: geographic area, pelagic systems, productivity, seabirds, species richness

'To tree or not to tree': the role of energy limitation on host tree acceptance in a bark beetle.
Alex M. Chubaty, Melanie Hart & Bernard D. Roitberg — 2014(4) (achubaty@nrcan.gc.ca)
Keywords: dispersal, host selection, state-dependent behaviour, condition-dependent behaviour, bark beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae

Asexual species of oribatid mites do not have local scale colonization advantage over sexual species.
Jennifer M. Cianciolo — 2009(1) (jciancio@indiana.edu)
Keywords: colonization advantage, competition, maintenance of sexual reproduction

Aging and typical survivorship curves result from optimal resource allocation.
Mariusz Cichon & J. Kozlowski — 2000(7) (cichon@eko.uj.edu.PL)
Keywords: ageing, disposable soma theory, life history, longevity, mortality, resource allocation, survivorship curves

Indirect effects of prey coloration on predation risk: pygmy grasshoppers versus lizards.
Emilio Civantos, Jonas Ahnesjö, Anders Forsman, José Martín & Pilar López — 2004(2) (e.civantos@mncn.csic.es)
Keywords: activity, coloration, grasshoppers, lizards, predation, prey, temperature

Delayed evolutionary branching in small populations.
David Claessen, Jens Andersson, Lennart Persson & André M. de Roos — 2007(1) (david.claessen@ens.fr>)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, demographic stochasticity, evolutionary branching, extinction, finite population size, incipient species, random genetic drift

Ontogenetic niche shifts and evolutionary branching in size-structured populations.
David Claessen & Ulf Dieckmann — 2002(2) (david.claessen@bbsrc.ac.uk)
Keywords: Arctic char, bluegill, cichlids, evolution, feedback, ontogenetic niche shift, perch, population dynamics, resource polymorphism, roach, size structure

Fitness components of avian migration: A dynamic model of Western Sandpiper migration. 
C. W. Clark and R. W. Butler — 1999(4)  (biec@interchange.ubc.ca)
Keywords: avian migration, dynamic optimization models, habitat degradation and fitnes, predation risk, Western Sandpipers

Winter survival strategies for small birds: managing energy supply and expenditure.
Colin Clark & R. Dukas — 2000(4) (biec@interchange.ubc.ca)
Keywords: dynamic optimization, energy management, fattening strategies, hypothermia, willow tits, winter survival

Mammalian metabolic rate scaling to 2/3 or 3/4 depends on the presence of gut contents.
Marcus Clauss, Jürgen Hummel, W. Jürgen Streich & Karl-Heinz Südekum — 2008(1) (mclauss@vetclinics.uzh.ch)

Effect of competition on niche dynamics of syntopic grazing ungulates: contrasting the predictions of habitat selection models using stable isotope analysis.
Daryl Codron, John Hull, James S Brink, Jacqui Codron, David Ward & Marcus Clauss — 2011(3) (darylcodron@gmail.com)
Keywords: centrifugal community, grassland, grazer, niche compression, wildebeest

Scientific bibliography, acknowledgements and thanks.
Dan Cohen — 2000(4)

Investing for survival of severe rare stresses in heterogeneous environments.
Dan Cohen & Marc Mangel — 1999(8) (dancohen@vms.huji.ac.il)
Keywords: Bayesian updating, ESS survival, exponential distribution, rare stress, storm damage, threshold stress, trees

Evolutionary distributions.
Yosef Cohen — 2009(4) (yc@umn.edu)
Keywords: adaptive traits, competition, evolutionary distributions, host–parasite, predator–prey

Distributed predator-prey coevolution.
Yosef Cohen — 2003(6) (cohen006@tc.umn.edu)
Keywords: evolutionary distributions, evolutionary games, predator-prey co-evolution, reaction-diffusion equations

Distributed evolutionary games.
Yosef Cohen — 2003(3) (yc@x101-73-31.gis.umn.edu)
Keywords: assortative mating, distributed ESS, distributed fitness, evolutionary games, mutations, partial differential equations

Evolutionary strategies and nutrient cycling in ecosystems.
Yosef Cohen, J. Pastor & T.L. Vincent — 2000(6)  (yc@x101-73-31.fw.umn.edu)
Keywords: evolutionarily stable strategies, game theory, nutrient cycling

A G-function approach to fitness minima, fitness maxima, ESS and adaptive landscapes. 
Yosef Cohen, T.L. Vincent & J.S. Brown — 1999(8) (yc@x101-73-31.gis.umn.edu)
Keywords: adaptive landscapes, evolutionarily stable strategy, fitness, frequency-dependent selection, game theory, G-function, speciation, strategy dynamics

Does the G-function deserve an F?
Yosef Cohen, Thomas L. Vincent & Joel S. Brown — 2001(3) (yc@x101-73-31.gis.umn.edu)  
Keywords: adaptive landscape, evolutionary games, evolutionarily stable strategy, G-function

Mate choice or polyandry: reconciling genetic compatibility and good genes sexual selection.
Nick Colegrave, Janne S. Kotiaho & Joseph L. Tomkins — 2002(6) (jlt1@st-andrews.ac.uk)
Keywords: female choice, female control, incompatibility, indicator mechanism

Latitudinal patterns and environmental determinants of recent human cultural diversity: do humans follow biogeographical rules?
Ian F Collard & Robert A Foley — 2002(3) (ifc20@cam.ac.uk )
Keywords: biogeography, cultural density, cultural diversity, human evolutionary ecology, latitudinal gradient

Root fungi in wild strawberry: root colonization depends on host inbreeding.
Carine L. Collin & Tia-Lynn Ashman — 2010(4) (cl.collin@gmail.com)
Keywords: Fragaria virginiana, inbreeding depression, root fungi, Rosaceae, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi

The ideal free distribution: an analysis of the perceptual limit model.
Edmund J. Collins, Alasdair I. Houston & Alison Lang — 2002(4) (e.j.collins@bristol.ac.uk)
Keywords: ideal free distribution, input matching, Markov chain model, perceptual limit

Species-area curves, homogenization, and the loss of global diversity.
Michael D. Collins, Diego P. Vázquez & Nathan J. Sanders — 2002(3) (michaelc@utk.edu )
Keywords: exotic species, global and regional species diversity, homogenization, species-area curves

Evolution of cooperative turn-taking.
Andrew M. Colman & Lindsay Browning — 2009(6) (amc@le.ac.uk)
Keywords: Battle of the Sexes, cooperation, coordination game, evolutionary game, genetic algorithm, Prisoner?s Dilemma, Stag Hunt, tit for tat, turn-taking

Lawrence B. Slobodkin, ז"ל
Robert K. Colwell & Douglas J. Futuyma — 2009(7) (colwell@uconn.edu; futuyma@life.bio.sunysb.edu)

Peaks, plateaus, canyons, and craters: the complex geometry of simple mid-domain effect models.
Robert K. Colwell, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Carsten Rahbek, Gary L. Entsminger, Catherine Farrell & Gary R. Graves — 2009(3) (colwell@uconn.edu)
Keywords: biogeography, boundary effects, doughnut, geographical range, geometric constraints, null models, spatial scale, species richness gradients, stochastic models

Relatedness predicts phenotypic plasticity in plants better than weediness.
Susan C. Cook-Patton & Anurag A. Agrawal — 2011(5) (scc56@cornell.edu)
Keywords: comparative ecology, competition, fertilization, old-field communities, phenotypic plasticity, plant invasion

Weight loss during breeding is adaptive for female macaroni penguins, Eudyptes chrysolophus.
Katherine A. Cresswell, Geraint A. Tarling & Philip N. Trathan — 2007(7) (kcre@soe.ucsc.edu)
Keywords: behaviour, chick provisioning, Eudyptes chrysolophus, Euphausia superba, fitness, foraging, predator, prey, stochastic dynamic programming, variability

The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in response to anthropogenic disturbance.
Erika Crispo, Joseph D. DiBattista, Cristián Correa, Xavier Thibert-Plante, Ann E. McKellar, Amy K. Schwartz, Daniel Berner, Luis F. De León & Andrew P. Hendry — 2010(1) (erika.crispo@mail.mcgill.ca)
Keywords: adaptation, adaptive plasticity, climate change, contemporary evolution, human impact, meta-analysis, rapid evolution, reaction norms

Putting evolutionary biology back in the ecological theatre: a demographic framework mapping genes to communities.
Tim Coulson, T.G. Benton, Per Lundberg, Sasha R.X. Dall & Bruce E. Kendall — 2006(7) (t.coulson@imperial.ac.uk)
Keywords: demography, dynamics, evolutionary change, response to selection, selection

A model for polyandry in oaks via female choice: a rigged lottery.
Kathleen J. Craft, Joel S. Brown, Antonio J. Golubski & Mary V. Ashley — 2009(3) (ashley@uic.edu)
Keywords: maternal choice, model, oaks, polyandry, Quercus, theoretical model

Do marsupials make good predators? Insights from predator-prey diversity ratios.
Darin A. Croft — 2006(7) (dcroft@case.edu)
Keywords: Australia, carnivore, Cenozoic, marsupial, paleofauna, phorusrhacid, predator diversity, South America

The genetic structure of the tropical understory herb Dieffenbachia seguine L. before and after forest fragmentation.
Sandra Cuartas-Hernández & Juan Núńez-Farfán — 2006(6) (Farfan@servidor.unam.mx)
Keywords: Araceae, clonality, F-statistics, genetic drift, genotypic richness, isozymes, Los Tuxtlas

Effects of immune challenge and supernormal clutch production on egg quality in the red-legged partridge.
Marco Cucco, Marco Grenna, Irene Pellegrino & Giorgio Malacarne — 2011(3) (cucco@unipmn.it)
Keywords: Alectoris rufa, egg quality, laying order, maternal investment, NDV vaccine challenge, supernormal clutch

Phenotypic variability of physiological traits in populations of sexual and asexual whiptail lizards.
Alistair J. Cullum — 2000(7) (acullum@uci.edu)
Keywords: asexuality, Cnemidophorus, genetic variability, locomotion, metabolic rate, phenotypic variability

Temporal scaling of temperature variability from land to oceans.
Hélčne Cyr & Isabel Cyr — 2003(8) (helene@zoo.utoronto.ca)
Keywords: aquatic systems, environmental variability, noise colour, power spectra, scaling, temperature, temporal dynamics

Optimal resource allocation explains changes of the zebra mussel growth pattern through time.
Marcin Czarnołęski, Jan Kozłowski, Krzysztof Lewandowski, Maciej Mikołajczyk, Tomasz Müller & Anna Stańczykowska — 2005(6) (czarn@eko.uj.edu.pl)
Keywords: Bertalanffy's growth curve, bivalves, body size, Dreissena polymorpha, exotic species, invasions, life-history strategy, mortality, phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic rate of evolution

Optimal resource allocation explains growth curve diversity in zebra mussels.
Marcin Czarnołęski, Jan Kozłowski, Anna Stanczykowska & Krzysztof Lewandowski — 2003(4) (czarn@eko.uj.edu.pl)
Keywords: Bertalanffy's growth curves, Beverton and Holt's pattern, bioenergetic model, bivalves, body size, Dreissena polymorpha, fouling, growth, life-history evolution, mortality

Fungal endophytes protect grass seedlings against herbivory and allow economical seed production.
Marcin Czarnoleski, Paweł Olejniczak, Paulina Mikołajczak, Marlena Lembicz & Jan Kozłowski — 2010(6) (lembicz@amu.edu.pl)
Keywords: fungal endophytes, herbivory, life history, resource allocation, seedlings, seed mass, seed quality, snails

Plant defences to no avail? Responses of plants with varying edibility to food web manipulations in a low arctic scrubland.
Jonas Dahlgren, Lauri Oksanen, Tarja Oksanen, Johan Olofsson, Peter A. Hambäck & Ĺsa Lindgren — 2009(8) (lauoks@utu.fi)
Keywords: Keywords: arctic, food web dynamics, herbivory, Myodes rufocanus, plant defences, tolerance, trade-offs

Plant defences at no cost? The recovery of tundra scrubland following heavy grazing by gray-sided voles (Myodes rufocanus).
Jonas Dahlgren, Lauri Oksanen, Johan Olofsson & Tarja Oksanen — 2009(8) (lauoks@utu.fi)
Keywords: arctic, herbivory, multiple benefits, Myodes rufocanus, resistance, tolerance, trade-offs, tundra, vegetation recovery, voles

The distribution of pollen heteromorphism in Viola: ecological and morphological correlates. 
I. Dajoz — 1999(1)  
Keywords: corolla size, heteromorphism, ploidy level, pollen, pollination biology, Viola

Provisioning under the risk of starvation.
Sasha R.X. Dall & Ian L. Boyd — 2002(6) (SashaDall@iname.com)
Keywords: central place foraging, dynamic programming, life-history theory, provisioning, starvation risk, stochasticity

The effects of environmental variation on a mechanism that controls insect body size.
Goggy Davidowitz, Louis J.D'Amico & H.Frederik Nijhout — 2004(1) (goggy@email.arizona.edu)
Keywords: body size, critical weight, endocrine regulation, growth rate, interval to cessation of growth, Manduca sexta

Reliability characteristics of natural functional-group interaction webs.
Andrew J. Davis, Wei-chung Liu, Joerg Perner & Winfried Voigt — 2004(8) (andrew@pop.lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp)
Keywords: arthropods, biodiversity, ecosystem function, grasslands, plants, structure, topology

Evolutionary dynamics and stability in discrete and continuous games.
Troy Day & Peter D. Taylor — 2003(4) (tday@mast.queensu.ca)
Keywords: adaptive and replicator dynamics, discrete and continuous games, evolutionary stability

Ecology of an exceptional roost: energetic benefits could explain why the bat Lophostoma silvicolum roosts in active termite nests.
Dina K.N. Dechmann, Elisabeth K.V. Kalko & Gerald Kerth — 2004(7) (dechmann@zool.unizh.ch)
Keywords: basal metabolic rate, Nasutitermes corniger, roost making, temperature, Tonatia silvicola

Testosterone is positively related to the output of nematode eggs in male Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) faeces.
Paola M. A. Decristophoris, Achaz von Hardenberg & Alan G. McElligott — 2007(8) (achaz.hardenberg@pngp.it)
Keywords: body mass, dominance, faecal egg counts, immunocompetence, immunosuppression, path model

Host plant protection by arboreal ants: looking for a pattern in locally induced responses.
Alain Dejean, Julien Grangier, Céline Leroy & Jérôme Orivel — 2008(8) (alain.dejean@wanadoo.fr)
Keywords: aggressiveness, ant-plant relationships, Azteca, biotic defence, induced responses

The influence of life-history differences on the evolution of reaction norms.
Gerdien de Jong & Narayan Behera — 2002(1) (g.dejong@bio.uu.nl)
Keywords: density dependence, dispersal stages, ESS phenotypic plasticity, heterogeneous environment, polymorphism

On the evolution of protandry and the distinction between preference and rank order in pollinator visitation.
Tom J de Jong, Peter G.L. Klinkhamer, Avi Shmida & Frank Thuijsman — 2011(3) (t.j.de.jong@biology.leidenuniv.nl)
Keywords: bumblebee, dichogamy, Darwin’s pollination syndrome, Digitalis purpurea, Echium vulgare

Sex allocation in plants and the evolution of monoecy.
Tom J. de Jong, Avi Shmida & Frank Thuijsman — 2008(8) (t.j.de.jong@biology.leidenuniv.nl)
Keywords: andromonoecy, ESS model, fruit abortion, gynomonoecy, hermaphroditism, monoecy, sex system

Individual specialization and the seeds of adaptive radiation in Darwin's finches.
Luis Fernando De León, Gregor Rolshausen, Eldredge Bermingham, Jeffrey Podos & Andrew P. Hendry — 2012(4) (luis.deleonreyna@gmail.com)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, Darwin’s finches, ecological speciation, Galápagos, individual specialization, intraspecific competition, niche variation

Experimental demonstration of a ‘rate-size’ trade-off governing body size optimization.
John P. DeLong — 2012(3) (jpdelong@unl.edu)
Keywords: Actinosphaerium, body size evolution, life-history evolution, Paramecium bursaria, supply–demand model, temperature–size rule

The selection of social actions in families: an introduction.
Lynda Delph — 2000(1) (clively@indiana.edu)

A test of the differential-plasticity hypothesis for variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism in Silene latifolia.
Lynda F. Delph & Daniela L. Bell — 2008(1) (ldelph@indiana.edu)
Keywords: common garden, differential-plasticity hypothesis, dioecious, phenotypic plasticity, physiology, sexual dimorphism

Factors affecting relative seed fitness and female frequency in a gynodioecious species.
Lynda F. Delph & Steven B. Carroll — 2001(4) (ldelph@sunflower.bio.indiana.edu)  
Keywords: fruit set, gynodioecy, sex-ratio variation, Silene acaulis

Genetic, environmental, and maternal effects on magpie nestling-fitness traits under different nutritional conditions: a new experimental approach.
Liesbeth De Neve, Juan José Soler, Tomás Pérez-Contreras & Manuel Soler — 2004(3) (deneve@mncn.csic.es)
Keywords: body mass, food supplementation, immune response, magpie, maternal effects, Pica pica, quantitative genetics, tarsus length

Knights in shining armour are not necessarily bold: Defensive morphology correlates negatively with boldness, but positively with activity, in wild three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).
Gunnar De Winter, Henrique Ramalho Martins, Rafael Arnoni Trovo & Ben B. Chapman — 2016(2) (mbxgd@nottingham.ac.uk)
Keywords: activity, armour, behaviour, boldness, exploration, Gasterosteus aculeatus, threespine stickleback.

Functional diversity among predators of a freshwater snail imposes an adaptive tradeoff for shell morphology. 
Thomas J. DeWitt, Beren Robinson & David Sloan Wilson — 2000(2) (tdewitt@wfscgate.tamu.edu)
Keywords: adaptive trade-off, crayfish, functional ecology, inducible defences, Lepomis gibbosus, multiple predators, Physa, shell morphology

Energetic savings and the body size distributions of gliding mammals.
Roman Dial — 2003(8) (roman@alaskapacific.edu)
Keywords: body size, body size distribution, energetics, mammalian gliders

Saumon a la Kaitala et Getz, sauce hollandaise. 
O. Diekmann, S.D. Mylius and J.R. ten Donkelaar — 1999(3)  
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, age at reproduction, complex population dynamics, evolutionarily stable strategy, evolutionary dynamics, extinction, invasion, life history, multiple attractors, resonance

The effect of sexual size dimorphism on mating behaviour in two dung flies with contrasting dimorphism.
Alexandre Ding & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn — 2002(2) (wolfman@zoolmus.unizh.ch)
Keywords: body size, dung flies, mating behaviour, mating system, Scathophaga stercoraria, Sepsis cynipsea, sexual conflict, sexual size dimorphism

Exploring migration and life histories.
Hugh Dingle — March, 2009 (rdhdingle@ucdavis.edu)

Selfish and spiteful behaviour through parasites and pathogens.
Francisco Dionisio — 2007(7) (dionisio@fc.ul.pt)
Keywords: competition, epidemiology, manipulation of parasites, R0, sociobiology, spite

Plasmids survive despite their cost and male-specific-phages due to heterogeneity of bacterial populations.
Francisco Dionisio — 2005(8) (fdionisio@oeb.harvard.edu)
Keywords: maintenance of plasmids, male-specific-phages, polymorphism, sink habitat, source habitat

Controlling excludability in the evolution of cooperation.
Francisco Dionisio & Isabel Gordo — 2007(2) (fdionisio@oeb.harvard.edu)
Keywords: evolution of complexity, excludability, multi-level selection, privatization, rivalry, tragedy of the commons

The tragedy of the commons, the public goods dilemma, and the meaning of rivalry and excludability in evolutionary biology.
Francisco Dionisio & Isabel Gordo — 2006(2) (fdionisio@oeb.harvard.edu)
Keywords: collective action, excludability, prisoner's dilemma, public goods dilemma, rivalry, tragedy of the commons

Evolution of stress reactivity in stickleback.
Carole Di Poi, Jennyfer Lacasse, Sean M. Rogers & Nadia Aubin-Horth — 2016(3) (Nadia.Aubin-Horth@bio.ulaval.ca)
Keywords: evolution, Gasterosteus aculeatus, natural selection, standing genetic variation, stress reactivity, threespine stickleback, ventilation rate

Osmoregulatory physiology and rapid evolution of salinity tolerance in threespine stickleback recently introduced to fresh water.
Jeffrey N. Divino, Michelle Y. Monette, Stephen D. McCormick, Paul H. Yancey, Kyle G. Flannery, Michael A. Bell, Jennifer L. Rollins, Frank A. von Hippel & Eric T. Schultz — 2016(2) (jeffrey.divino@uconn.edu)
Keywords: comparative physiology, directional selection, free amino acid, ion balance, osmoregulatory divergence, plasticity, threespine stickleback.

The geographic mosaic of co-evolution and the natural enemies of Eurosta solidaginis.
Michael D. Dixon, Timothy P. Craig & Joanne K. Itami — 2009(6) (dixon091@umn.edu)
Keywords: co-evolution, oviposition preference, Solidago altissima, tritrophic interaction

Patterns of herbivory and fungal infection in experimental Louisiana Iris hybrids.
Mary C. Dobson, Sunni J. Taylor, Michael L. Arnold & Noland H. Martin — 2011(5) (nm14@txstate.edu)
Keywords: fungal infection, herbivores, hybrid fitness, hybridization, Louisiana Iris

Phenotypic diversity as an adaptation to environmental uncertainty.
Matina C. Donaldson-Matasci, Michael Lachmann & Carl T. Bergstrom — 2008(4) (matina@u.washington.edu)
Keywords: bet hedging, fluctuating environment, generalist, life history, plasticity, polyphenism, specialist, trade-off

Sexual plumage differences and the outcome of game bird (Aves: Galliformes) introductions on oceanic islands.
Jennifer Donze, Michael P. Moulton, Ronald F. Labisky & Walter Jetz — 2004(4) (Moultonm@wec.ufl.edu)
Keywords: competition, Galliformes, introduction outcomes, oceanic islands, Passeriformes, sexually dichromatic plumage

Differences in mating behaviour and sex ratio between three siblingspecies of Nasonia. 
M. D. Drapeau and J. H. Werren — 1999(2)  
Keywords: adaptation, inbreeding, local mate competition, mating behaviour, Nasonia, sex ratio, sibling species

Evolution of transmission mode in obligate symbionts.
Devin M. Drown, Peter C. Zee, Yaniv Brandvain & Michael J. Wade — 2013(1) (dmdrown@indiana.edu)
Keywords: co-evolution, epistasis, horizontal transmission, linkage disequilibrium, vertical transmission

Assortative interactions and the evolution of cooperation during predator inspection in guppies.
Lee A. Dugatkin & David Sloan Wilson — 2000(6)  (laduga01@athena.louisville.edu)
Keywords: altruism, cooperation, predator inspection

Parasitism and environmental sex determination in Daphnia.
Alison B. Duncan, Sarah A. Hall & Tom J. Little — 2009(6) (alison.duncan@univ-montp2.fr)
Keywords: crowding, evolution, males, Pasteuria ramose, resistance, resting egg, sexual reproduction

Morphological over-dispersion in game birds (Aves: Galliformes) successfully introduced to New Zealand was not caused by interspecific competition.
Richard P. Duncan & Tim M. Blackburn — 2002(4) (t.blackburn@bham.ac.uk)
Keywords: biological invasions, community assembly, competition, game birds, introductions, morphological over-dispersion

Convergent evolution of an ant-plant mutualism across plant families, continents, and time.
Robert R. Dunn, Aaron Gove, Tim G. Barraclough, Thomas J. Givnish & Jonathan D. Majer — 2007(8) (Rob_Dunn@ncsu.edu)
Keywords: ant, convergent evolution, dispersal, diversity, Formicidae, mutualism, myrmecochory, seed

Protozoan functional responses: effects of species, genotype and antipredator defences.
Shelly Duquette, Res Altwegg & Bradley R. Anholt — 2007(5) (banholt@uvic.ca)
Keywords: Chorella, chlorophyll autofluorescence, Euplotes, model selection, phenotypic plasticity, Stenostomum

Terrestrial limitation of Amazon River productivity: why the Amazon River is not green.
Phillip Dustan — 2009(3) (dustanp@cofc.edu)
Keywords: Amazon, black water, chlorophyll, continental scale ecology, HSS, humic acids, limiting factors, productivity, tannins

Animal foraging meets viruses.
Daniel E. Dykhuizen & Ing Nang Wang — March, 2009 (dandyk@life.bio.sunysb.edu)

Dormancy strategies in a random environment: comparing structured and unstructured models.
Michael R. Easterling & Stephen P. Ellner — 2000(4) (easterling.michael@epa.gov)
Keywords: copepod, dormancy strategies, evolutionarily stable strategy, moment closure, structured population model

Apparent selective advantage of leucism in a coastal population of southern caracaras (Falconidae).
Pim Edelaar, José Donazar, Matias Soriano, Miguel Ángel Santillán, Diego González-Zevallos, Pablo Garcia Borboroglu, Nora Lisnizer, Alejandro Javier Gatto, María Laura Agüero, Carlos A. Passera, Luis Augosto Ebert, Marcelo Bertelotti, Guillermo Blanco, Monica Abril, Graciela Escudero, & Flavio Quintana — 2011(2) (edelaar@ebd.csic.es)
Keywords: albinism, Caracara plancus, colour, inbreeding, leucism, polymorphism, selection

Retained non-adaptive plasticity: gene flow or small inherent costs of plasticity?
Pim Edelaar, Theunis Piersma & Erik Postma — 2005(3) (w.m.c.edelaar@umail.leidenuniv.nl)
Keywords: anti-predation behaviour, bivalve, inherent cost, Macoma, phenotypic plasticity

Geographic correlation between reciprocally adaptive traits of an exotic decapod predator and native gastropod prey: evidence of an arms race?
Timothy C. Edgell & Rémy Rochette — 2007(4) (tim.edgell@unb.ca)
Keywords: arms race, biogeography, Carcinus, Littorina, predator-prey

Environmental unpredictability and offspring size: conservative vs. diversified bet-hedging.
Sigurd Einum & Ian A. Fleming — 2004(3) (sigurd.einum@nina.no)
Keywords: environmental variation, life-history evolution, Oncorhynchus, physiological constraints, Salmo salar

Coexistence of learners and stayers maintains the advantage of social foraging.
Sigrunn Eliassen, Christian Jřrgensen & Jarl Giske — 2006(7) (Sigrunn.Eliassen@bio.uib.no)
Keywords: frequency dependence, group formation, group size, individual-based model, learning, optimal foraging theory, social foraging

Why are so few parasitoid wasp species pro-ovigenic?
Jacintha Ellers & Mark A. Jervis — 2004(7) (jacintha.ellers@ecology.falw.vu.nl)
Keywords: body size, egg size, habitat stochasticity, life-history strategy, ovigeny index, resource allocation, trade-offs

A comparison of estimates for mean annual precipitation from different proxies: A pilot study for the European Neogene.
Jussi T. Eronen, Arne Micheels & Torsten Utescher — 2011(8) (Jussi.T.Eronen@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: Europe, fossil mammals, Neogene, paleobotany, paleoclimate

Precipitation and large herbivorous mammals I: estimates from present-day communities.
Jussi.T. Eronen, Kai Puolamäki, Liping Liu, Kari Lintulaakso, John Damuth, Christine Janis & Mikael Fortelius — 2010(2) (Jussi.T.Eronen@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: climate, community structure, decision trees, herbivorous mammals, hypsodonty, precipitation

Precipitation and large herbivorous mammals II: application to fossil data.
Jussi.T. Eronen, Kai Puolamäki, Liping Liu, Kari Lintulaakso, John Damuth, Christine Janis & Mikael Fortelius — 2010(2) (Jussi.T.Eronen@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: climate, Eurasia, fossil mammals, hypsodonty, Neogene, precipitation

Wetland paradise lost: Miocene community dynamics in large herbivorous mammals from the German Molasse Basin.
Jussi T. Eronen & Gertrud E. Rössner — 2007(3) (jussie@iki.fi)
Keywords: body size, community structure, diet, large mammals, Miocene, paleoecology, southern Germany

On Fisher-Zahavi's handicapped sexy son.
Ilan Eshel, Ina Volovik & Emilia Sansone — 2000(4) (illan@math.tau.ac.il)
Keywords: Handicap Principle, long-term evolution, runaway process, sexual selection, 'sexy son' argument

Correspondence between tooth shape and dietary biomechanical properties in insectivorous microchiropterans.
Alistair R. Evans & Gordon D. Sanson — 2005(3) (arevans@fastmail.fm)
Keywords: dietary properties, functional dental morphology, hardness, insectivory, shear ratio, teeth

Adaptive dynamics of temperate phages.
Thomas Evans, Roger G. Bowers & Martin Mortimer — 2010(4) (t.w.evans@liv.ac.uk)
Keywords: evolution of virulence, lysis, lysogeny, singularities, trade-offs

Play behaviour and multi-year juvenile survival in free-ranging brown bears, Ursus arctos.
Robert Fagen & Johanna Fagen — 2009(7) (bobf45@gmail.com)
Keywords: Alaska, behavioural adaptability, behavioural flexibility, brown bear, facultative decisions, innovation, inter-subjectivity, life histories, mother-young relationships, plastic behavioural responses, play behaviour, pre-adult survival, Ursus arctos

Juvenile survival and benefits of play behaviour in brown bears Ursus arctos.
Robert Fagen & Johanna Fagen — 2004(1) (ffrmf@aurora.alaska.edu)
Keywords: Alaska, brown bear, play behaviour, survival, Ursus arctos

Inequality of opportunity: measuring the effect of sex ratio and density on the potential for sexual selection.
Daphne J. Fairbairn & Angela L. Wilby — 2001(6) ( daphnef@citrus.ucr.edu )
Keywords: mating success, Morisita's index of dispersion, opportunity for selection, relative fitness, resource monopolization, sexual selection, Tenebrio molitor.

Drift and selection entwined: asymmetric reproductive isolation in an experimental niche shift.
Jay J. Falk, Christine E. Parent, Deepa Agashe & Daniel I. Bolnick — 2012(4) (j.jinsing@gmail.com)
Keywords: ecological speciation, founder effects, inbreeding depression, niche shift, phytophagous insects, post-zygotic isolation, pre-mating isolation, pre-zygotic isolation

Size-mediated dominance and begging behaviour in Eurasian kestrel broods.
Juan A. Fargallo, Toni Laaksonen, Erkki Korpimäki, Ville Pöyri, Simon C. Griffith & Jari Valkama — 2003(4) (fargallo@mncn.csic.es)
Keywords: begging, Falco tinnunculus, food provisioning, immune response, raptor, sex allocation, sexual size dimorphism, sibling competition

Spatial patterns of diversity in the tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) of the Aegean Islands (Greece).
Simone Fattorini — 2006(2) (simone_fattorini@virgilio.it)
Keywords: beta diversity, gamma diversity, island biogeography, land-bridge islands, paleogeography

The consequences of the unlikely but critical assumption of stepwise mutation in the population genetic software, MSVAR.
Søren Faurby & Cino Pertoldi — 2012(7) (soren.faurby@biology.au.dk)
Keywords: demographic changes, effective population size, microsatellites, Ne, stepwise mutation model

Spatial self-structuring accelerates adaptive speciation in sexual populations.
Varvara Fazalova & Ulf Dieckmann — 2012(5) (fazalova@iiasa.ac.at)
Keywords: adaptive speciation, assortative mating, frequency-dependent selection, homogeneous habitat, mating cost, multiple loci, spatial self-structuring, waiting time until speciation

Climatic variation and the geographical distribution of sex-determining mechanisms in the housefly.
Barbara Feldmeyer, Magdalena Kozielska, Bram Kuijper, Franz J. Weissing, Leo W. Beukeboom & Ido Pen — 2008(6) (b.v.feldmeyer@rug.nl)
Keywords: cline, humidity, latitudinal variation, Musca domestica, seasonality, sex determination, sex ratio, temperature

Habitat choice and female preference in a polymorphic stickleback population.
Anna F. Feller, Ole Seehausen, Kay Lucek & David A. Marques — 2016(3) (DavidAlexander.Marques@eawag.ch)
Keywords: behavioural mate choice, colour polymorphism, Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric divergence, threespine stickleback

Intraspecific home range scaling: a case study from the owl limpet (Lottia gigantea).
Phillip B. Fenberg — 2013(1) (pfenberg@gmail.com)
Keywords: Allometry, ectothermic invertebrate, home range scaling, Lottia gigantea, size-selective harvesting

Ecological generalization during adaptive radiation: evidence from Neogene mammals.
Robert S. Feranec — 2007(4) (rferanec@mail.nysed.gov)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, diet, habitat, hypsodonty, key adaptation, mammal, niche breadth, Ungulata

Is selection ready when opportunity knocks?
Ian M. Ferguson & Daphne J. Fairbairn — 2001(2) (ian@vax2.concordia.ca)   Keywords: Aquarius remigis, fitness, Gerridae, opportunity for selection, partitioning, selection gradient

Relationships of anti-predator escape and post-escape responses with body mass and morphology: a comparative avian study.
Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Daniel T. Blumstein, Gerardo Abrica, Lisa Manriquez, Laura Bandy Adams, Robert Adams, Monica Daneshrad & Ińaki Rodriguez-Prieto — 2006(4) (efernand@csulb.edu)
Keywords: flight initiation distance, hind limb morphology, landing distance, migratory species, predation, wingtip shape

The emergence of division of labor in forced associations of normally solitary ant queens. 
J. H. Fewell & R. E. Page Jr. — 1999(5)  
Keywords: division of labour, emergent properties, foundress associations, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, self-organization, social insects, task specialization

New theory of insular evolution: unifying the loss of dispersability and body-mass change.
Ido Filin & Yaron Ziv — 2004(1) (filin@bgumail.bgu.ac.il)
Keywords: allometry, dispersability, dwarfism, gigantism, insular evolution, island size, optimal body mass

An evaluation of the geographic area hypothesis using the latitudinal gradient in North American tree diversity.
Paul V.A. Fine — 2001(4) (fine@biology.utah.edu)  
Keywords: frost tolerance, geographic area hypothesis, latitudinal gradient, North American tree diversity

Adaptation to ice-cover conditions in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.
Anders Gravbrřt Finstad & Torbjřrn Forseth — 2006(7) (anders.finstad@nina.no)
Keywords: climate changes, countergradient variation, growth, thermal adaptation, thermal performance

The role of weather and migration in assortative pairing within the northern flicker (Colaptes auratus) hybrid zone.
D. T. Tyler Flockhart & Karen L. Wiebe — 2007(6) (karen.wiebe@usask.ca)
Keywords: assortative mating, bounded hybrid superiority hypothesis, Colaptes auratus, hybridization, migration, North Atlantic Oscillation, northern flicker

Broken genitals function as mating plugs and affect sex ratios in the orb-web spider Argiope aurantia.
Matthias W. Foellmer — 2008(3) (Foellmer@adelphi.edu)
Keywords: effective sex ratio, genital damage, mating plugs, monogyny, operational sex ratio, sexual conflict

Running performance as a function of body size, leg length and angle of incline in male orb-web spiders, Argiope aurantia.
Matthias W. Foellmer, Michael Marson, Jordi Moya-Larańo — 2011(5) (Foellmer@adelphi.edu)
Keywords: body size evolution, morphology, orb-web spiders, running speed, sex-specific selection, sexual dimorphism

Males under attack: Sexual cannibalism and its consequences for male morphology and behaviour in an orb-weaving spider.
Matthias W. Foellmer & Daphne J. Fairbairn — 2004(2) (foellmer@vax2.concordia.ca)
Keywords: Araneidae, Argiope aurantia, copulation duration, sexual cannibalism, sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism, shape dimorphism

Non-adaptive strategies explain variations in rate of development under different thermal conditions.
Guillermo Folguera, Tamara P. Catalán & Francisco Bozinovic — 2009(5) (fbozinovic@bio.puc.cl)
Keywords: adaptation, Armadillidium vulgare, development, isomorphy

Testing the interplay between physiological and life history traits: an experimental study in Drosophila.
Guillermo Folguera, José Luis Muńoz, Santiago Ceballos, Francisco Bozinovic & Esteban Hasson — 2007(7) (guillermofolguera@gmail.com)
Keywords: developmental time, Drosophila, metabolic rate, thermal adaptation

Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms: a case study of killer whale ecotypes.
Andrew D. Foote — 2012(4) (FooteAD@gmail.com)
Keywords: ecological speciation, genome-wide scans, killer whale, niche variation, non-model organism, Orcinus orca, phenotypic variation, reproductive isolation

Quantitative genetics of plant tolerance and resistance against natural enemies of two natural populations of Datura stramonium.
Juan Fornoni, Pedro L.Valverde & Juan Núńez-Farfán — 2003(7) (jfornoni@miranda.ecologia.unam.mx)
Keywords: adaptive variation, Datura stramonium, environment-dependent trade-off, G×E interactions, herbivory, heritability, resistance, tolerance

Variable coloration is associated with more northerly geographic range limits and larger range sizes in North American lizards and snakes.
Anders Forsman & Viktor Ǻberg — 2008(7) (anders.forsman@hik.se)Keywords: biogeography, colour polymorphism, environmental variability, macro-ecology, population variability, range boundaries, reptiles

Fitness benefits of diverse offspring in pygmy grasshoppers.
Anders Forsman, Jonas Ahnesjö & Sofia Caesar — 2007(8) (Anders.Forsman@hik.se)
Keywords: colour polymorphism, offspring diversification, polyandry, selective free-rider

Fossil mammals resolve regional patterns of Eurasian climate change during 20 million years.
Mikael Fortelius, Jussi Eronen, Jukka Jernvall, Liping Liu, Diana Pushkina, Juhani Rinne, Alexey Tesakov, Inesa Vislobokova, Zhaoqun Zhang & Liping Zhou — 2002(7) (mikael.fortelius@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: Eurasian continent, fossil mammal tooth, mid-latitude aridity, Neogene, palaeoprecipitation proxy

Evolutionary insights from behavioural geography: plasticity, evolution and responses to rapid environmental change.
Susan A. Foster 2013(6) (sfoster@clarku.edu)
Keywords: anthropogenic environmental change, behavioural phenotype, contemporary evolution, evolutionary mismatch, geographic variation, phenotypic plasticity

Why organisms show late-life mortality plateaus: a null model for comparing patterns of mortality.
Charles W. Fox & Jordi Moya-Larańo — 2003(7) (cfox@uky.edu)
Keywords: Gompertz mortality curve, hazard function, lifespan, longevity, mortality rate

Bet-hedging and the evolution of multiple mating.
Charles W. Fox & Claudia M. Rauter — 2003(2) (cfox@uky.edu)
Keywords: bet-hedging, genetic benefits, geometric mean fitness, Lygaeus kalmii, multiple mating, polyandry

Inbreeding depression increases with maternal age in a seed-feeding beetle.
Charles W. Fox & David H. Reed — 2010(8) (fox@uky.edu)
Keywords: Callosobruchus, inbreeding depression, inbreeding–age interaction, inbreeding–environment interaction, maternal effects

Assortative mating and plant phenology: evolutionary and practical consequences.
Gordon A. Fox — 2003(1) (gfox@chuma1.cas.usf.edu)
Keywords: flowering, life-history evolution, population genetics, timing

Development of colony phenotype in social insects controlled by frequency-dependent thresholds among workers.
Steve A.Frank — 1999(8) (safrank@uci.edu)
Keywords: foraging, multiple mating, ontogeny, regulatory network

Sperm competition and female avoidance of polyspermy mediated by sperm-egg biochemistry.
Steve A. Frank — 2000(5) (safrank@uci.edu)
Keywords: co-evolution, fertilization, sexual selection, speciation

Condition-dependent expression of trophic polyphemism: effects of individual size and competititve ability.
W. Anthony Frankino & David W. Pfennig — 2001(8) (frankino@unc.edu)
Keywords: adaptive plasticity, alternative phenotypes, amphibian, development, Spea, state-dependent strategy, tadpole

Methane production in relation to body mass of ruminants and equids.
Ragna Franz, Carla R. Soliva, Michael Kreuzer, Patrick Steuer, Jürgen Hummel & Marcus Clauss — 2010(6) (mclauss@vetclinics.unizh.ch)
Keywords: body size, digestive physiology, energetic losses, excretion pattern, herbivory, hindgut fermenter, ruminant

Tree-climbing mangrove crabs: a case of convergent evolution.
Sara Fratini, Marco Vannini, Stefano Cannicci & Christoph D. Schubart — 2005(2) (sarafratini@unifi.it)
Keywords: convergent evolution, Grapsidae, mangrove crabs, molecular phylogeny, Sesarmidae

Incipient extinction of a major population of the Hawaii akepa owing to introduced species.
Leonard A. Freed, Rebecca L. Cann & Gustav R. Bodner — 2008(7) (lfreed@hawaii.edu)
Keywords: demography, environmental change, food limitation, interspecific competition, introduced species, population crash

Sexual dimorphism and the evolution of seasonal variation in sex allocation in the Hawaii akepa.
Leonard A. Freed, Rebecca L. Cann & Karl Diller — 2009(5) (lfreed@hawaii.edu)
Keywords: cost of reproduction, Hawaii akepa, Loxops coccineus coccineus, seasonality, sex allocation, sex ratio, sexual dimorphism, stabilizing selection

Adaptation in the Hawaii akepa to breed and moult during a seasonal food decline.
Leonard A. Freed, J. Scott Fretz & Matthew C. Medeiros — 2007(1) (lfreed@hawaii.edu>)
Keywords: breeding season, moult-breeding overlap, nestling overgrowth

Whole brood mortality increases the opportunity for female-biased sex ratios under local mate competition.
Steven Freedberg — 2002(3) (sfreedbe@indiana.edu)
Keywords: brood mortality, evolutionarily stable strategy, local mate competition, Micrathena gracilis, sex ratio

Monitoring juveniles across years reveals non-Fisherian sex ratios in a reptile with environmental sex determination.
Steven Freedberg & David R. Bowne — 2006(8) (freedber@stolaf.edu)
Keywords: environmental sex determination, mark-recapture, sex ratio, turtle

Developmental environment has long-lasting effects on behavioural performance in two turtles with environmental sex determination.
Steven Freedberg, Amanda Stumpf, Michael A. Ewert & Craig E. Nelson — 2004(5) (sf4s@virginia.edu)
Keywords: differential fitness model, Graptemys ouachitensis, righting response, temperature-dependent sex determination, turtle

Environmental effects on fitness and consequences for sex allocation in a reptile with environmental sex determination.
Steven Freedberg, Michael A. Ewert & Craig Nelson — 2001(8) (sfreedbe@indiana.edu)
Keywords: Chelydra serpentina, Graptemys ouachitensis, nest-site inheritance, sex ratio, temperature-dependent sex determination

Characterization of a narrow hybrid zone between two subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata, Asteraceae): VII. Community and demographic analyses. 
D. C. Freeman, H. Wang, S. Sanderson and E.D. McArthur — 1999(4)  
Keywords: big sagebrush, canonical correspondence analysis, community composition, demographic structure, ecotone, hybrid zone, ordination

Macroevolution in Microchiroptera: recoupling morphology and ecology with phylogeny. 
Patricia Freeman — 2000(3)  (pfreeman@unlserve.unl.edu)
Keywords: bats, craniodental patterns, dental patterns, diet, dilambdodonty, ecology, insectivory, macroevolution, mammals, Microchiroptera, phylogeny, Phyllostomidae

Evolution of sexually dimorphic flower production under sexual, fertility, and viability selection.
Frank M. Frey, Lynda F. Delph, Brian Dinneen & Colin Twomey — 2007(1) (ffrey@mail.colgate.edu>)
Keywords: dioecious, flower number, life-history trade-off, model, sexual dimorphism

Life-history polyphenism in the map butterfly (Araschnia levana): developmental constraints versus season-specific adaptations.
Magne Friberg & Bengt Karlsson — 2010(5) (magne.friberg@zoologi.su.se)
Keywords: diapause, direct development, dispersal, flight performance, nitrogen analysis, phenotypic plasticity, reproductive output, seasonal polymorphism, trade-off

Mechanical design indicates differences in mobility among butterfly generations.
Zdeněk Fric, M. Klimova & Martin Konvička — 2006(8) (fric@entu.cas.cz)
Keywords: biomechanics, developmental plasticity, dispersal polymorphism, Lepidoptera, voltinism

Generations of the polyphenic butterfly Araschnia levana differ in body design.
Zdeněk Fric & Martin Konvička — 2002(7) (konva@tix.bf.jcu.cz)
Keywords: allometry, biomechanical design, canonical variate analysis, dispersal, Lepidoptera, seasonal polyphenism

Inferring prey perception of relative danger in large-scale marine systems.
Alejandro Frid, Lawrence M. Dill, Richard E. Thorne & Gail M. Blundell — 2007(4) (alejandro_frid@alumni.sfu.ca)
Keywords: diving behaviour, harbour seal, hazardous duty pay, individual variation in risk-taking, killer whale, Pacific herring, Pacific sleeper shark, predation risk, resource distribution, risk-energy trade-offs, sub-lethal effects of predators, walleye pollock

Temperature-induced responses of a permanent-pond and a temporary-pond cyclopoid copepod: a link to habitat predictability?
Dagmar Frisch & Barbara Santer — 2004(4) (dfrisch@sistern.net)
Keywords: Cyclops insignis, Cyclops strenuus, developmental plasticity, diapause, ephemeral habitats, juvenile development

Experimental evidence that plants under caterpillar attack may benefit from attracting parasitoids.
Maria Elena Fritzsche-Hoballah & Ted Turlings — 2001(5) (ted.turlings@zool.unine.ch)
Keywords: Campoletis sonorensis, Cotesia marginiventris, indirect defence, parasitoids, plant fitness, plant-insect interactions, Spodoptera littoralis, Zea mays.

Scarce resources, risk sensitivity and egalitarian resource sharing.
Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Henrik Pasurka, Oliver Mitesser & Hans Joachim Poethke — 2011(3) (fronhofer@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de)
Keywords: egalitarian groups, resource sharing, risk-sensitive foraging, social spiders

The comparative ecology of a killifish (Rivulus hartii) across aquatic communities differing in predation intensity.
Andrew I. Furness & David N. Reznick — 2014(3) (andrew.furness@email.ucr.edu)
Keywords: density, growth rate, guppy, indirect effects, killifish, life history, mark–recapture, mortality, Poecilia reticulata, Rivulus hartii

I never enrolled in one of his courses.
Douglas J. Futuyma — September, 2009 (futuyma@life.bio.sunysb.edu)

Geographic variation in behaviour: an introduction.
Caitlin R. Gabor, Andrea S. Aspbury & Rafael L. Rodríguez 2013(6) (Gabor@txstate.edu)
Keywords: environmental variation, phenotypic plasticity, reproductive isolation, sexual selection, speciation

Geographic variation in male mate choice in a gynogenetic species complex: evaluating long-term data across mating contexts.
Caitlin R. Gabor, Laura Alberici da Barbiano & Andrea S. Aspbury 2013(6) (Gabor@txstate.edu)
Keywords: Poecilia formosa, Poecilia latipinna, reproductive isolation, speciation, temporal variation

Repeatability of female preferences in a unisexual-bisexual mating system.
Caitlin R. Gabor, Michelle H. Parmley & Andrea S. Aspbury — 2011(2) (gabor@txstate.edu)
Keywords: livebearing, mate choice, Poecilia formosa, Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia mexicana, repeatability

Mitochondrial phylogeography of the land snail Cornu aspersum: Tracing population history and the impact of human-mediated invasion in austral South America.
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Rodrigo Scheihing, Elie Poulin, Paulina Artacho & Roberto F. Nespolo — 2013(1) (robertonespolorossi@gmail.com)
Keywords: agricultural pests, alien species, biogeography, bottlenecks, molluscs, multiple introductions

Loss of assortative pairing following colonization of a new environment by Darwin's small ground finch (Geospiza fuliginosa).
Toby H. Galligan & Sonia Kleindorfer — 2010(6) (sonia.kleindorfer@flinders.edu.au)
Keywords: colonization, homogamy, parapatry, reproductive isolation, selection intensity

Avian song complexity is associated with high field metabolic rate.
László Zsolt Garamszegi, Juan Moreno & Anders Pape Mřller — 2006(1) (laszlo.garamszegi@ua.ac.be)
Keywords: bird song, cost, energetics, field metabolic rate, repertoire size, song complexity

Influence of male parental identity on growth and survival of offspring in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
Dany Garant, Pierre-Michel Fontaine, Shawn P. Good, Julian J. Dodson & Louis Bernatchez — 2002(4) (Julian.Dodson@bio.ulaval.ca)
Keywords: alternative reproductive tactics, conditional strategy, fertilization success, growth rate, Salmonidae

Life-history evolution in harvested populations: The role of natural predation.
Anna Gĺrdmark, Ulf Dieckmann & Per Lundberg — 2003(2) (anna.gardmark@teorekol.lu.se)
Keywords: age-at-first-reproduction, age-at-maturation, age-specific mortality, density-dependent selection, fisheries-induced adaptive response, harvesting, life-history evolution, predation

Costs and benefits of fighting infection in locusts.
Shea N. Gardner & Matthew B. Thomas — 2002(1) (Gardner26@llnl.gov)
Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, behavioural fever, biocontrol, dynamic state variable model, entomopathogenic fungi, locusts and grasshoppers, Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, thermoregulation

Induced plant defence and the evolution of counter-defences in herbivores.
Shea N. Gardner & Anurag A. Agrawal — 2002(8) (agrawal@botany.utoronto.ca)
Keywords: evolution of resistance, induced versus constitutive defence, major gene resistance, phenotypic plasticity, plant-insect interactions, quantitative characters

Heterocarpy in Calendula micrantha (Asteraceae): The effects of competition and availability of water on the performance of offspring from different fruit morphs.
Mary E. Gardocki, Heather Zablocki, Ali El-Keblawy & D. Carl Freeman — 2000(6)  (cfreeman@sun.science.wayne.edu)
Keywords: Asteraceae, Calendula micrantha, heterocarpy, niche partitioning

Immune responses vary with parasite burden in an insular lizard.
Mario Garrido & Valentín Pérez-Mellado — 2014(7) (gaiarrido@usal.es)
Keywords: bacterial killing assay, haemogregarine, immune response, immunological strategies, insularity, parasitic infestation, resistance, tolerance

Ant-plant conflicts and a novel case of castration parasitism in a myrmecophyte.
Laurence Gaume, Merry Zacharias & Renee M. Borges — 2005(3) (lgaume@cirad.fr)
Keywords: ant-plant interactions, ant-pollinator conflict, castration parasitism, Crematogaster dohrni, defence-pollination conflict, extrafloral nectar, Humboldtia brunonis, myrmecophyte, partner selective mechanisms

Arctic lemmings are not simply food limited — a comment on Oksanen et al.
Gilles Gauthier, Dominique Berteaux, Charles J. Krebs & Donald Reid — 2009(3) (Gilles.Gauthier@bio.ulaval.ca)

Heat tolerance and its evolutionary potential along a latitudinal gradient in Daphnia magna.
Aurora N. Geerts, Luc De Meester & Robby Stoks — 2014(6) (Aurora.Geerts@bio.kuleuven.be)
Keywords: CTmax, Daphnia magna, evolutionary potential, latitude, thermal adaptation

Whole-plant investment in nectar is greater for males than pollinated females in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia.
Janet L. Gehring, Jennifer Scoby, Michael Parsons & Lynda F. Delph — 2004(8) (jgehring@bradley.edu)
Keywords: cost of reproduction, dioecy, nectar, sexual dimorphism

Geographic variation in acoustic communication: reproductive character displacement and speciation.
H. Carl Gerhardt 2013(6) (GerhardtH@missouri.edu)
Keywords: acoustic communication, auditory masking, cascades of speciation, geographical variation, sexual selection

Diet quality mediates the effect of multiple mating on female Gryllus vocalis vocal field cricket lifetime reproductive success.
Susan N. Gershman — 2008(2) (sgershm@ilstu.edu)
Keywords: diet quality, fecundity, fertility, Gryllus vocalis, multiple mating, polyandry, survival

Plant growth and the optimal sharing of photosynthetic products with a mycorrhizal symbiont.
Stefan A. H. Geritz, Mats Gyllenberg & Ping Yan — 2006(4) (stefan.geritz@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: mycorrhiza, optimization model, plant growth model, symbiosis

Theory articles in EER and other ecology journals versus climate change research.
Ernesto Gianoli — 2013(7) (egianoli@userena.cl)
Keywords: climate change, ecological literature, theory papers

Local adaptation and evolution of parasitoid interactions in an invasive species, Drosophila subobscura.
Patricia Gibert, Roland Allemand, Hélène Henri & Raymond B. Huey — 2010(7) (patricia.gibert@univ-lyon1.fr)
Keywords: Drosophila subobscura, host–parasitoid system, Leptopilina heterotoma, life history, local adaptation

Citations, anonymous ideas, and ecological engineering.
Lev R. Ginzburg & Scott Ferson — March, 2009 (lev@ramas.com)

Statistical description of temperature-dependent sex determination using maximum likelihood. 
M. Girondot — 1999(4)  
Keywords: environmental sex determinatio, reptile, sex determination, temperature-dependent sex dete, turtle

Explicit trade-off rules in proximate adaptive agents.
Jarl Giske, Marc Mangel, Per Jakobsen, Geir Huse, Chris Wilcox & Espen Strand — 2003(6) ( jarl.giske@ifm.uib.no )
Keywords: adaptation, affect, behaviour, individual-based modelling, perception, proximate, sensing, trade-off

Allochrony: A new way of analyzing life histories,as illustrated with mammals. 
D. S. Glazier and S.D. Newcomer — 1999(3)  
Keywords: allochrony, body size, diet, foraging mode, gestation time, juvenile period, lactation time, life histories, mammals, maturation time, reproduction

Stability and diversity in mathematical models of ecosystems.
Bean San Goh — 2009(4) (bsgoh82@gmail.com)
Keywords: biodiversity, decoupling, ecosystem stability, resilience, non-vulnerability

Genetic structure of the narrow endemic Brongniartia vasquezii.
Jorge Gonzalez-Astorga & Juan Nunez-Farfan — 2001(7) (astorga@ecologia.edu.mx) Keywords: Brongniartia vazquezii, conservation genetics, endemic and narrow species, gene flow, genetic structure, habitat fragmentation, Mexico

Master of them all: performance specialization does not result in trade-offs in tropical lizards.
Brett A. Goodman, Andrew K. Krockenberger & Lin Schwarzkopf — 2007(3) (Brett.Goodman@jcu.edu.au)
Keywords: ecomorphology, habitat specialization, performance, skinks, trade-offs

Resolving an adaptive conundrum: reproduction in Caenorhabditis elegans is not sperm-limited when food is scarce.
Nancy C. Goranson, John P. Ebersole & Solange Brault — 2005(2) (Nancy.Goranson@umb.edu)
Keywords: diet restriction, hermaphrodite, oocyte limitation, phenotypic plasticity, soil, sperm limitation, streptomycin

Environmentally alterable additive genetic effects.
Root Gorelick — 2005(3) (cycad@asu.edu)
Keywords: cytosine methylation, epigenetic, hard inheritance, heritability, phenotypic plasticity, reaction norm, soft inheritance

Testing metapopulation models with stream-fish assemblages. 
Nick Gotelli & C.M. Taylor — 1999(7) (ngotelli@zoo.uvm.edu
Keywords: colonization, extinction, freshwater fishes, metapopulation

Testing macroecology models with stream-fish assemblages. 
Nick Gotelli & C.M. Taylor — 1999(7) (ngotelli@zoo.uvm.edu
Keywords: abundance, body size, colonization, extinction, freshwater fishes, geographic range, macroecology

Female palm-seed borer beetles adjust their sex ratio according to relatedness of female neighbours.
Daphna Gottlieb, Amos Bouskila, Gal Sitkov-Sharon, Yael Lubin, Ally R. Hararia (with appendix by Peter D. Taylor) — 2010(7) (gdaphna@bgu.ac.il)
Keywords: haplodiploid, local mate competition, sex allocation, sex ratio

The relationship of the pollen-ovule ratio and pollen size: another comparative test of a sex allocation hypothesis.
Lars Götzenberger, Walter Durka, Ingolf Kühn & Stefan Klotz — 2007(7) (lars.goetzenberger@ufz.de)
Keywords: comparative analysis, mating system, pollen-ovule ratio, pollen size, sex allocation

The relationship of pollen-ovule ratio and seed size: a comparative test of a sex allocation hypothesis.
Lars Götzenberger, Walter Durka, Ingolf Kühn & Stefan Klotz — 2006(6) (lars.goetzenberger@ufz.de)
Keywords: comparative analysis, mating system, pollen-ovule ratio, seed size, sex allocation

Predation risk, unequal competitors and the ideal free distribution. 
T. C. Grand and L. M. Dill — 1999(4)  
Keywords: habitat selection, ideal free distribution, predation risk, unequal competitors

The evolution of dispersal in spatially varying environments.
James M. Greenwood-Lee & Peter D. Taylor — 2001(6) ( taylorp@post.queensu.ca)
Keywords: dispersal, dynamics, evolutionary stability, gene flow, spatial heterogeneity

Parasites can simplify host-population dynamics and reduce extinction risk.
Megan A. Greischar & Curtis M. Lively v13/n06 (mag450@psu.edu)
Keywords: chaos, density dependence, effective population size, extinction, parasite, population regulation

Evolution of clutch size along latitudinal gradients: revisiting Ashmole's hypothesis.
Eva Maria Griebeler & Katrin Böhning-Gaese — 2004(5) (griebel@oekologie.biologie.uni-mainz.de)
Keywords: clutch size, cost of reproduction, density dependence, fecundity, seasonality of resources, survival, tropical vs temperate

Development of color in an aposematic ladybird beetle: The role of environmental conditions. 
C. P. Grill — 1999(6) (cpg@ceeb.uky.edu
Keywords: aposematism, chemical defence, colouration, food quality, Harmonia axyridis, reflex bleeding

The evolution of nestling discrimination by hosts of parasitic birds: why is rejection so rare?
Tomáš Grim — 2006(5) (grim@prfnw.upol.cz)
Keywords: arms-race, brood parasitism, co-evolution, discrimination, evolutionary equilibrium, evolutionary lag, recognition

Dermapteran life history evolution and phylogeny with special reference to the Forficulidae.
Stéphanie Guillet and Michel Vancassel — 2001(4) (stephanie.guillet@univ-rennes1.fr)  
Keywords: Dermaptera, reproductive strategies, phylogeny, 16S rRNA

Testing predictions of small brood models using parasitoid wasps.
Meghan A. Guinnee, Julio S. Bernal, T. Martijn Bezemer, Jeffery G. Fidgen, Ian C.W. Hardy, Peter J. Mayhew, Nicholas J. Mills, & Stuart A. West — 2005(5) (Meghan.Guinnee@gmail.com)
Keywords: brood size, litter size, parasitoid wasps, resource allocation, trade-off

Distinct snail (Physa) morphotypes from different habitats converge in shell shape and size under common garden conditions.
Kyle D. Gustafson, Bart J. Kensinger, Matthew G. Bolek & Barney Luttbeg — 2014(1) (kyle.gustafson@okstate.edu)
Keywords: geometric morphometrics, morphology, phenotypic plasticity, predation, water flow.

Spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity in montane mammal communities in western North America. 
Elizabeth A. Hadly & Brian A. Maurer — 2001(4) (hadly@stanford.edu)  
Keywords: biogeography, Holocene, nestedness, nested subset, palaeontology

The evolution of developmental dependence, or 'Why do my kids need me so much?'
Rebecca E. Hale & Joseph Travis — 2012(2) (rhale@unca.edu)
Keywords: altricial, birth asynchrony, brood reduction, developmental dependence, parental care, parental effort

Selection for predator resistance varies with resource supply in a model adaptive radiation.
Alex R. Hall, Justin R. Meyer & Rees Kassen — 2008(5) (alex.hall@ed.ac.uk)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, competition, experimental evolution, predation, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Tetrahymena thermophila

Adaptive responses to spatial aggregation and habitat destruction in heterogeneous landscapes.
Peter J.F. Hancock and Nicholas F. Britton — 2006(8) (n.f.britton@bath.ac.uk)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, evolutionary branching, evolution of specialization, heterogeneous landscape, metapopulation, spatial aggregation

Regulation of propagule size in the aquatic pseudo-annual Potamogeton pectinatus: are genetic and maternal non-genetic effects additive?
Helen H. Hangelbroek & Luis Santamaría — 2004(1) (hange001@umn.edu )
Keywords: carry-over effects, fennel pondweed, propagule size, size-number trade-off, tuber size

Cannibalistic growth polyphenism in Atlantic cod.
David C. Hardie & Jeffrey A. Hutchings — 2014(7) (David.Hardie@dfo-mpo.gc.ca)
Keywords: alternative foraging tactics, Arctic Canada, Gadus morhua L., life history, natural mortality

The evolution of prudent choice.
Roger Härdling & Hanna Kokko — 2005(5) (Roger.Hardling@zooekol.lu.se)
Keywords: assortative mating, evolutionarily stable strategy, game theory, life-history model, mate choice, mate competition, non-random mating, takeover

Life-history traits as causes or consequences of social behaviour: why do cooperative breeders lay small clutches?
Roger Härdling & Hanna Kokko — 2003(5) (Roger.Hardling@zooekol.lu.se)
Keywords: cooperative breeding, clutch size evolution, life-history hypothesis, life-history trade-off, offspring depreciation, survival rate

Resolution of evolutionary conflicts: costly behaviours enforce the evolution of cost-free compromises.
Roger Härdling, Henrik G. Smith, Veijo Jormalainen, Juha Tuomi — 2001(7) (rfh1n@udcf.gla.ac.uk)
Keywords: conflict behaviour, evolutionary conflict, parent-offspring conflict, resolution compromise, sexual conflict

Structure of the North American vegetation gradient during the late Paleocene/early Eocene warm climate.
G.J. Harrington — 2004(1) (g.j.harrington@bham.ac.uk)
Keywords: Eocene, latitudinal diversity gradient, North America, Paleocene, palynology, vegetation

Sex allocation in a group-living simultaneous hermaphrodite: effects of density at two different spatial scales.
Mary K. Hart, Andrew W. Kratter, Anne-Marie Svoboda, Cara L. Lawrence, R. Craig Sargent & Philip H. Crowley — 2010(2) (mkhart@uky.edu)
Keywords: Caribbean, coral reefs, gonadal investment, mating systems, Panama, seabass, Serranus tortugarum, spawning behaviour, sperm competition, trade-offs

The latitudinal gradient of diversity thru the Holocene as recorded by fossil pollen in Europe.
John P. Haskell — 2001(3) (jhaskell@unm.edu)  
Keywords: community ecology, fossil pollen, latitude, plants, regulation, richness

Is it just a coincidence that aposematic polymorphism and sex ratio distortion co-occur in a tropical butterfly?
Sami Saeed M. Hassan, Eihab Idris & Michael E. N. Majerus — 2013(1) (samisaeedmh@yahoo.com)
Keywords: Danaus chrysippus, East Africa, hybrid zone, male-killing, polymerase chain reaction, Spiroplasma

The coexistence of hosts and sex ratio distorters in structured populations.
Melanie J. Hatcher, Alison M. Dunn & Chris Tofts — 2000(2) (pab6mjh@leeds.ac.uk)
Keywords: cytoplasmic inheritance, Gammarus duebeni, levels of selection, metapopulation, sex determination, sex ratio distorter

Interspecific brood parasitism and the evolution of host clutch sizes.
Mark E. Hauber — 2003(4) (hauberm@socrates.berkeley.edu)
Keywords: co-evolution, conspecific brood parasitism, cowbirds, optimal clutch sizes

Plasticity in cyanogenesis of Trifolium repens L: Inducibility, fitness costs and variable expression.
Katherine J. Hayden & Ingrid M. Parker— 2002(2) (khayden@nature.berkeley.edu)
Keywords: chemistry, cost of defence, cyanogenesis, plant defence, plasticity

The costs and consequences of parasitoid attack for the predatory hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus.
Steaphan P. Hazell, Claire Wenlock, Susan Bachel & Mark D. E. Fellowes — 2005(5) (m.fellowes@reading.ac.uk)
Keywords: cost of resistance, Diplazon laetatorius, Episyrphus balteatus, immunity, pea aphid, tritrophic

Correlated variation of colour between melanin and carotenoid pigmented plumage areas in great tits.
Gergely Hegyi, Beáta Szigeti, Miklós Laczi, Marcel Eens & János Török — 2008(4) (everest@ludens.elte.hu)
Keywords: carotenoid, condition dependence, good genes, melanin, multiple signals, Parus major, plumage colour, sexual selection

Dynamics of multiple sexual signals in relation to climatic conditions.
Gergely Hegyi, János Török, László Zsolt Garamszegi, Balázs Rosivall, Eszter Szöllősi & Rita Hargitai — 2007(6) (Gergely Hegyi: everest@ludens.elte.hu)
Keywords: collared flycatcher, condition-dependence, Ficedula albicollis, North Atlantic Oscillation, phenotypic plasticity, plumage ornament, sexual selection

An analysis of life-history invariants in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).
Erik Heibo & Leif Asbjřrn Vřllestad — 2006(1) (avollest@bio.uio.no)
Keywords: Beverton and Holt invariants, dimensionless numbers, life history, Perca fluviatilis, trade-offs

Evolution of foraging strategies on resource gradients.
Mikko Heino, Kalle Parvinen & Ulf Dieckmann — 2008(8) (mikko.heino@bio.uib.no)
Keywords: exploitation competition, frequency-dependent selection, function-valued traits, ideal free distribution, interference competition, optimal foraging, resource dynamics, resource gradient

Consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predation by introduced northern pike on life-history traits in threespine stickleback .
David C. Heins, Helen Knoper & John A. Baker — 2016(3) (heins@tulane.edu)
Keywords: food limitation, invasive species, nutrient deprivation, physiological stress, predation risk, reproduction, threespine stickleback.

Coexistence of a pair of pelagic planktivorous coregonid fishes.
Ingeborg Palm Helland, Chris Harrod, Jörg Freyhof & Thomas Mehner — 2008(3) (helland@igb-berlin.de)
Keywords: δ13C, δ15N, niche overlap, reproductive isolation, resource competition, stable isotope analysis, stomach content analysis, sympatric species

Do humans adjust offspring sex according to the local operational sex ratio?
Samuli Helle, Pekka Käär, Samuli Helama & Jukka Jokela — 2008(5) (samuli.helle@utu.fi)
Keywords: Fisherian sex allocation, maternal and paternal age, temperature, time-series analysis

Selection against migrants contributes to the rapid evolution of ecologically dependent reproductive isolation.
Andrew P. Hendry — 2004(8) (andrew.hendry@mcgill.ca)
Keywords: adaptive divergence, contemporary evolution, ecological speciation, gene flow, rapid evolution, reinforcement, reproductive isolation

Revisiting the positive correlation between female size and egg size.
Andrew P. Hendry & Troy Day — 2003(3) (andrew.hendry@mcgill.ca)
Keywords: habitat quality, incubation, maternal effects, offspring survival, survival to emergence, trade-offs

Stickleback research: the now and the next.
Andrew P. Hendry, Catherine L. Peichel, Blake Matthews, Janette W. Boughman & Patrik Nosil — 2013(2) (Andrew.Hendry@McGill.ca)
Introduction to Stickleback Behaviour & Evolution: contributions from the Seventh International Conference

Hendry Vineyard stickleback: testing for contemporary lake-stream divergence.
Andrew P. Hendry, Aspen S. Hendry & Cedar A. Hendry — 2013(3) (andrew.hendry@mcgill.ca)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, constraint, contemporary evolution, diversification, local adaptation, natural selection, rapid evolution, stickleback

Trade-off between latent period and transmission success of a plant pathogen revealed by phenotypic correlations.
Virginie Héraudet, Lucie Salvaudon & Jacqui A. Shykoff — 2008(6) (virginie.heraudet@u-psud.fr)
Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, genotype-environment interactions, host-parasite interactions, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsis, Hyaloperonospora parasitica, Peronospora, phenotypic trade-off

Foraging strategies and feeding regimes: web and decoration investment in Argiope keyserling Karsch.
Marie Herberstein, C.L. Craig & M.A. Elgar — 2000(1) (m.herberstein@zoology.unimelb.edu.au)
Keywords: foraging behaviour, orb web, optimal foraging, spiders, stabilimenta, web decorations, web investment

Adaptive strategies in size structured populations: Optimal patterns and perturbation analysis.
Maria-J. Hernandez & J.A. Leon — 2000(5) (mjhernan@strix.ciens.ucv.ve)
Keywords: avoidable and unavoidable mortality, constrained optimization, life-history evolution, perturbation analysis, reproductive values, size-structured populations

Assessing fitness of dormancy from reproductive values of dormant plants.
Gabriel I. Herrick & Gordon A. Fox — 2011(8) (gherrick@mail.usf.edu)
Keywords: bet-hedging, dormancy, fitness, life history, Lilium catesbaei, reproductive value

Fitness trade-offs and developmental constraints in the evolution of soma: an experimental study in a volvocine alga.
Matthew D. Herron, Susma Ghimire, Conner R. Vinikoor & Richard E. Michod — 2014(3) (xprinceps@gmail.com)
Keywords: cellular differentiation, experimental evolution, multicellularity, Pleodorina, Volvocaceae

Variation in egg mass in the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca: An experimental test of the brood survival and brood reduction hypothesis. 
Lars Hillstrom — 1999(6) (hillstrom@ebd03.ebd.csic.es
Keywords: brood reduction, Ficedula hypoleuca, hatching asynchrony, variation in egg mass

Agent-based models of competitive speciation I: Effects of mate search tactics and ecological conditions.
Rainer Hilscher — 2005(7) (rainerh@sussex.ac.uk)
Keywords: agent-based model, assortative mating, competition, individual-based model, mating strategy, niche width, sympatric speciation

Optimal digestion strategies in seabirds: a modelling approach.
Geoff M. Hilton, G. Ruxton, R.W. Furness & D.C. Houston — 2000(2) (geoffhilton@beacon65.freeserve.co.uk)
Keywords: digestion strategy, digestive efficiency, modelling, retention time, seabirds

Variation in the prevalence of cytoplasmic incompatibility-inducing Wolbachia in the butterfly Eurema hecabe across the Japanese archipelago.
Masato Hiroki, Yumiko Ishii & Yoshiomi Kato — 2005(6) (hiroki@nt.icu.ac.jp)
Keywords: cytoplasmic incompatibility, Eurema hecabe, reproductive isolation, speciation, Wolbachia

Sensory exploitation and indicator models may explain red pelvic spines in the brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans.
Andrew Hodgson, A. Ross Black & Ryan Hull — 2013(2) (noonemaycomehere@gmail.com)
Keywords: brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans, prey selection, sensory bias, sensory exploitation, sexual selection

An experimental manipulation of the growth and dispersal strategy of a parasitic infection using monoclonal aphid colonies.
David J. Hodgson — 2002(1) (djhod@ceh.ac.uk)
Keywords: aphid, Aphis fabae, clonal parasite, density dependence, dispersal, life history

Phenotypic variation between naturally coexisting geotypes of a Lepidopteran baculovirus.
David J. Hodgson, Adam J. Vanbergen, Allan D. Watt, Rosie S. Hails & Jenny S. Cory — 2001(6) (djhod@ceh.ac.uk)
Keywords: genotype, mixed infection, nucleopolyhedrovirus, Panolis flammea, phenotype, trade-off

Are fitness effects of density mediated by body size? Evidence from Drosophila field releases.
Ary A. Hoffmann & Volker Loeschcke — 2006(5) (ary@unimelb.edu.au)
Keywords: body size, capture success, density, Drosophila, field fitness, resource location

Aggregative egg distributions might promote species coexistence — but why do they exist?
Thomas S. Hoffmeister & M. Rohlfs — 2001(1) (thoffmeister@zoologie.uni-kiel.de)
Keywords: Allee effect, Drosophila subobscura, egg distribution, fitness, individual behaviour, parasitoids, refuge

The confusing transition into adulthood: time allocation to the life-history transition of aquatic larvae.
Amber Gigi Hoi, Simon P. W. Zappia, Conan C. Phelan & Bernard D. Roitberg — 2013(8) (amb.g.hoi@gmail.com)
Keywords: age–size conflict, Anopheles, life history, metamorphosis, plasticity, metabolic energy

Colonization of the freshwater environment by a marine invader: how to cope with warm summer temperatures?
Franz Hölker, Sven Volkmann, Christian Wolter, Peter L.M. van Dijk & Iris Hardewig — 2004(8) (hoelker@igb-berlin.de)
Keywords: bioenergetics, cold-stenotherm, Gadidae, growth, Lota lota, temperature tolerance

Oviposition choice and larval survival of an obligately pollinating granivorous moth.
J. Nathaniel Holland, Amanda L. Buchanan & Rachel Loubeau — 2004(4) (jholland@rice.edu)Keywords: behaviour, egg, fruit abortion, larva, mutualism, oviposition, senita, survival

Evolutionary effects of different dispersal modes on the origin of polymorphic crypsis in predator-prey systems.
Jennie Nilsson Holmér — 2011(8) (jennie.holmer@cec.lu.se)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, dispersal, habitat choice, heterogeneous environment, polymorphic crypsis

Evolution of host plant selection in insects under perceptual constraints: a simulation study.
Noel M.A.Holmgren & Wayne Getz — 2000(1) (noel.holmgren@inv.his.se)
Keywords: diet selection, evolutionary dynamics, feedforward networks, genetic algorithms, herbivory, niche selection

On the evolutionary ecology of species' ranges.
Robert D. Holt — 2003(2) (rdholt@zoo.ufl.edu)
Keywords: biogeographic theory, niche conservatism, range shifts, species' ranges

Patterns of trophic resource use and individual specialization in two species of darters (Etheostoma: Percidae).
Garrett W. Hopper & Michael Tobler — 2016(1) (ghopper@ksu.edu)
Keywords: diet variation, environmental variation, Etheostoma flabellare, Etheostoma spectabile, individual specialization, trophic ecology.

Discrimination among floral resources by an obligately pollinating seed-eating moth: host-marking signals and pollination and florivory cues.
Katherine C. Horn & J. Nathaniel Holland — 2010(1) (jholland@rice.edu)
Keywords: cue, florivory, oviposition, pheromone, signal

Should higher quality individuals work harder? An analysis based on relative ability.
Alisdair I. Houston, John M. McNamara, Marcel L. Hernandez — 2003(2) (a.i.houston@bristol.ac.uk)
Keywords: condition-dependent effort, courtship, quality, relative performance, signals

The effects of relatedness on offspring sex ratio in pollinating fig wasps.
Hao-Yuan Hu, Guang-C. Ma, Li-M. Niu, Yue-Guan Fu, Zheng-Q. Peng & Da-W. Huang — 2010(1) (huangdw@ioz.ac.cn)
Keywords: behaviour, co-evolution, inbreeding, pollinating fig wasp, relatedness, sex ratio, sibling

Can the sex ratio of the spiralling whitefly (Aleurodicus dispersus) be described by local mate competition?
Hao-Yuan Hu, Xiao-Li Zhu, Dong-Yin Han, Li-Ming Niu & Yue-Guan Fu — 2010(5) (fygcatas@163.com)
Keywords: behaviour, foundress, local mate competition, sex ratio, spiralling whitefly

Evolution of host resistance towards pathogen exclusion: the role of predators.
Andy Hoyle, Alex Best & Roger G. Bowers — 2012(2) (a.best@shef.ac.uk)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, co-evolution, eco-epidemiology, extinction, parasite, singular strategy

Can ecotypic differences in male courtship behaviour be explained by visual cues provided by female threespine stickleback?
Lily C. Hughes, Susan A. Foster & John A. Baker — 2013(4) (lilychughes@gmail.com)
Keywords: allopatric differentiation, ecological speciation, male mate choice, parallel evolution, threespine stickleback

Movement between habitats by unequal competitors: effects of finite population size on ideal free distributions.
Don M. Hugie & Tamara C. Grand — 2003(1) (don@hugie.net)
Keywords: habitat selection, ideal free distribution, individual-based modelling, patch switching, population size, unequal competitors

Trophic morphology, feeding performance and prey use in the polymorphic fish Herichthys minckleyi.
C. Darrin Hulsey, Dean A. Hendrickson & Francisco J. García de León — 2005(2) (chulsey@utk.edu)
Keywords: body size, Cichlidae, co-evolution, Cuatro Ciénegas, Hydrobiidae, maximum performance

Megaherbivores as pacemakers of carnivore diversity and biomass: distributing or sinking trophic energy?
Jürgen Hummel & Marcus Clauss — 2008(6) (jhum@itw.uni-bonn.de)
Keywords: dinosaurs, mammals, parental care, reproductive biology

Sexual selection on locomotor performance.
Jerry F. Husak & Stanley F. Fox — 2008(2) (husak@vt.edu)
Keywords: endurance, locomotion, performance, sexual selection, sprint speed

Ecological conditions promoting plant specialization on a seed-eating pollinator differ from those stabilizing the interaction.
Sébastien Ibanez & Laurence Després — 2009(6) (sebastien.ibanez@ujf-grenoble.fr)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, co-pollination efficiency, evolution, floral morphology, Trollius europaeus-Chiastocheta mutualism

Are beetle horns costly to produce?
Yutaka Iguchi — 2006(6) (bio-igu@f8.dion.ne.jp)
Keywords: adult emergence, body size, horned beetle, horn cost, horn size, larval mass, pupal duration, pupation, Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis

The long-term temporal variability and spectral color of animal populations.
Pablo Inchausti & John Halley — 2002(7) (inchauss@biologie.ens.fr)
Keywords: autocorrelation, conservation, extinction, fractal, noise, spectral colour, temporal variability

Does water depth or diet divergence predict progress toward ecological speciation in whitefish radiations?
Travis Ingram, Alan G. Hudson, Pascal Vonlanthen & Ole Seehausen — 2012(4) (ingram@fas.harvard.edu)
Keywords: AFLP, Coregonus spp., parapatric speciation, stable isotope analysis, sympatric speciation

Heterozygous advantage and the evolution of female choice.
Andrew J. Irwin & Peter D. Taylor — 2000(1) (irwin@mast.queensu.ca)
Keywords: female choice, fluctuating environment, heterozygote advantage

Group selection in density-regulated populations revisited. 
P. K. Ingvarsson — 1999(5)  
Keywords: competition, hard selection, intrademic selection, soft selection, structured demes, cooperation

Patch use and vigilance behaviour by Nubian ibex: the role of the effectiveness of vigilance.
Cecilia Iribarren & Burt P. Kotler — 2012(2) (ceciiriba@gmail.com)
Keywords: foraging theory, giving-up densities, Nubian ibex, optimal patch use, optimal vigilance, risk management, time allocation, trade-offs of food and safety

Optimal growth model for the latitudinal cline of shell morphology in cowries (genus Cypraea).
Takahiro Irie & Yoh Iwasa — 2003(8) (yiwasscb@mbox.nc.kyushu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: Cypraea caputserpentis, latitudinal gradient, optimal growth schedule, phenotypic plasticity, shell thickness

Studying the evolution of whole-organism performance capacity: sex, selection, and haiku — an introduction
Duncan J. Irschick & Jean-François Le Galliard — 2008(2) (irschick@bio.umass.edu)
Keywords: ecology, evolution, locomotion, performance selection

How does selection operate on whole-organism functional performance capacities? A review and synthesis.
Duncan J. Irschick, Jerry J. Meyers, Jerry F. Husak & Jean-François Le Galliard — 2008(2) (irschick@bio.umass.edu)
Keywords: ecology, evolution, locomotion, performance selection

Comparison of freshwater tolerance during spawning migration between two sympatric Japanese marine threespine stickleback species.
Asano Ishikawa, Makoto Kusakabe, Manabu Kume & Jun Kitano — 2016(4) (jkitano@lab.nig.ac.jp)
Keywords: hormones, osmoregulation, physiology, prolactin, stickleback

Diversification along environmental gradients in spatially structured populations.
Jaroslav Ispolatov & Michael Doebeli — 2009(2) (doebeli@zoology.ubc.ca)
Keywords: adaptive speciation, diversification, environmental gradients, partial differential equations, spatially structured populations

Evolutionary branching lines and areas in bivariate trait spaces.
Hiroshi C. Ito & Ulf Dieckmann — 2012(5) (Hiroshibeetle@gmail.com)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, frequency-dependent selection, predator–-prey interaction, resource competition, two-dimensional trait space

Niche expansion: coupled evolutionary branching of niche position and width.
Hiroshi C. Ito & Masakazu Shimada — 2007(4) (itoh9@dolphin.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, evolutionary branching, niche width, resource competition, resource utilization pattern

Slightly male-biased sex ratios for the avoidance of extinction.
Hiromu Ito, Takashi Uehara, Satoru Morita, Kei-ichi Tainaka & Jin Yoshimura — 2011(7) (jin@sys.eng.shizuoka.ac.jp)
Keywords: extinction probability, Fisher’s principle, male mortality, optimal sex ratio

The White Sea threespine stickleback population: spawning habitats, mortality, abundance.
Ivanova T.S., Ivanov M.V., Golovin P.V., Polyakova N.V. & Lajus D.L. — 2016(3) (dlajus@gmail.com)
Keywords: abundance, distribution, Gasterosteus aculeatus, habitats, mortality, threespine stickleback, White Sea

Evolution of multi-stage dormancy in temporally autocorrelated environments.
Helen Ivarsson, Jörgen Ripa & Per Lundberg — 2005(8) (helen.ivarsson@teorekol.lu.se)
Keywords: autocorrelation, dormancy, life-history evolution, stage structure, stochastic environment

Dynamic optimization of plant growth.
Yoh Iwasa — 2000(4) (yiwasscb@mbox.nc.kyushu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: defence against herbivory, dynamic programming, growth schedule, life-history strategy, phenology, Pontryagin'2s maximum principle, shoot—root balance, stochastic environment

The evolution of genomic imprinting: Abortion and overshoot explainabberations. 
Y. Iwasa, A. Mochizuki, and Y. Takeda — 1999(2)  
Keywords: abortion, genetic conflict, genomic imprinting, Mash2, multivariate quantitative gene, overshoot, parthenogenesis prevention, uniparental disomy s

Complex life cycle and body sizes at life history transitions for macroparasites.
Yoh Iwasa & Genki Wada — 2006(8) (yiwasscb@mbox.nc.kyushu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: body size, complex life cycle, evolution, macroparasite

Dioecy as a specialization promoting sperm delivery.
Priya Iyer & Joan Roughgarden — 2008(6) (priyai@stanford.edu)
Keywords: broadcast spawning, dioecy, evolution of sexes, fertilization behaviour, hermaphrodism, internal fertilization

Alternation of haploid and diploid generations: evolution by gamete amplification.
Priya Iyer & Joan Roughgarden — 2009(1) (priyai@stanford.edu)
Keywords: algae, alternation of generations, fertilization probability, haplo-diplonty, ploidy, sperm limitation

Coarse- and fine-grained phenotypic divergence among threespine stickleback from alternating lake and stream habitats.
Rebecca Izen, Yoel E. Stuart, Yuexin Jiang & Daniel I. Bolnick — 2016(3) (rebecca.izen@gmail.com)
Keywords: cline, Gasterosteus aculeatus, habitat preference, matching habitat choice, microgeographic variation, threespine stickleback

Evolutionary conflict between Trollius Europaeus and its seed-parasite pollinators Chiastocheta flies.
Nicolas Jaeger, I. Till-Bottraud & L. Després — 2000(7) (laurence.despres@ujf-grenoble.fr) Keywords: Chiastocheta, conflict, flower senescence, mutualism, oviposition, seed predation, Trollius europaeus

Within-population structure of competition and the dynamics of male-killing Wolbachia.
John Jaenike, Kelly A. Dyer & Laura K. Reed — 2003(7) (joja@mail.rochester.edu)
Keywords: aggregation, clutch size, endosymbionts, intragenomic conflict, larval competition, population structure, sex ratio, sib competition

Mushrooms as potential sources of Wolbachia-curing antibiotics.
John Jaenike, Susan Elizondo & Nicholas Delahanty — 2006(7) (joja@mail.rochester.edu)
Keywords: antimicrobial, Drosophila innubila, endosymbionts, male killing

Ploidy composition in all-hybrid frog populations in relation to ecological conditions.
Christian Jakob, Martina Arioli & Heinz-Ulrich Reyer — 2010(5) (uli.reyer@ieu.uzh.ch)
Keywords: dosage effect, gamete production, hybridogenesis, Pelophylax esculentus, ploidy

A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol for stickleback tissue.
Noelle James, Xiaochen Liu & Alison Bell — 2016(4) (nholmes3@life.illinois.edu)
Keywords: fluorescence in situ hybridization, fluorescence methods, Gasterosteus aculeatus, gene expression, gene localization, in situ hybridization, RNA, threespine stickleback

Optimal energy allocation to growth, reproduction, and production of defensive substances in plants: a model.
Mariusz Krzysztof Janczur — 2009(3) (majmx@interia.pl)
Keywords: dynamic state variable model, herbivory, life history, resistance, resource allocation, tolerance

Natural selection and the evolution of replicated trophic polymorphisms in pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus).
Christopher J. Jastrebski & Beren W. Robinson — 2004(2) (cjastreb@elr.ca)
Keywords: adaptive divergence, Centrarchidae, morphology, phenotypic plasticity, resource polymorphism, thin-plate splines

Assessing patterns of senescence in Drosophila mojavensis reared on different host cacti.
Luciano M. Jaureguy & William J. Etges — 2007(1) (wetges@uark.edu>)
Keywords: ageing, Drosophila, ecology, host cacti, mortality models

Micro-eukaryotic diversity in the surface layer of sediments from the East China Sea.
Ran Jiang, Jian-Xin Wang, Kai-Cheng Yu, Ming-Hua Liu, Ge Shi & Liu Xue-Zhu — 2016(1) (jxwang@zjou.edu.cn)
Keywords: marine sediment, micro-eukaryotic, RDA, 18S rRNA.

Population differentiation in floral characters of Datura inoxia Mill.
Vania Jiménez-Lobato & Juan Núñez-Farfán — 2012(8) (farfan@unam.mx)
Keywords: Datura inoxia, floral evolution, Flury’s method, FST, outcrossing, phenotypic differentiation, phenotypic integration, population genetic structure, QST, reproductive assurance, selfing, variance–covariance matrix

Life history and morphology of Rana temporaria in response to pool permanence.
Frank Johansson, Joakim Hjelm & Barbara E. Giles — 2005(7) (frank.johansson@eg.umu.se)
Keywords: development, growth, life history, pool drying, Rana temporaria, tadpoles, temporary habitats

Evolutionary responses of communities to extinctions.
Jacob Johansson & Ulf Dieckmann — 2009(4) (johans@iiasa.ac.at)
Keywords: community closure, community evolution, evolution, evolutionary domain of attraction, evolutionary restoration, extinctions, gradual evolution, keystone species

Natal vs. breeding dispersal: evolution in a model system.
Karin Johst & R. Brandl — 1999(8) (kajo@oesa.ufz.de)
Keywords: age structure, density-dependence, dispersal strategies, spatially structured model

Mode of reproduction, ploidy and fluctuating asymmetry: comparison of coexisting sexual and asexual freshwater snails.
Jukka Jokela, S. Niederegger, S. Negovetic & P. Mutikainen — 2001(8) (jukka.w.jokela@oulu.fi)
Keywords: asexual reproduction, fluctuating asymmetry, mutation load, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, radula

Bat life-histories: testing models of mammalian life history evolution.
Kate E. Jones & Ann MacLarnon — 2001(4) (kate.jones@virginia.edu)  
Keywords: bats, comparative analyses, evolution, independent contrasts, life-history model

Plasticity of immune function and condition under the risk of predation and parasitism.
Gerrit Joop & Jens Rolff — 2004(7) (jor@sheffield.ac.uk)
Keywords: dragonflies, ecological immunology, differences between the sexes, natural enemies, plasticity, water mites

On nestedness in ecological networks.
Lucas N. Joppa, José M. Montoya, Ricard Solé, Jim Sanderson & Stuart L. Pimm — 2010(1) (StuartPimm@me.com)
Keywords: ecological network, food web, host-parasitoid, mutualism, nestedness, null model

Reliable flows and preferred patterns in food webs. 
F. Jordán & I. Molnár — 1999(5)  
Keywords: flow network, food web pattern, reliability theory, sink web

Allometric scaling of ant foraging trail networks.
Joseph Jun, John W. Pepper, Van M. Savage, James F. Gilooly & James H. Brown — 2003(2) (van@santafe.edu)
Keywords: allometry, coloniality, foraging, optimal networks, social insects

Female social experience affects the shape of sexual selection on males.
Kevin A. Judge — 2010(3) (kevin.judge@uleth.ca)
Keywords: Gryllus pennsylvanicus, head size, male age, mate choice, no-choice trials, selection analysis

Floral scents repel potentially nectar-thieving ants.
Robert R. Junker & Nico Blüthgen — 2008(2) (bluethgen@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de)
Keywords: allomones, antagonists, floral traits, mutualism exploitation, nectar, olfactometer, repellence, terpenoids

Contrasting evolutionary and ecological management objectives in the context of sustainable harvesting.
Dunja Jusufovski & Anna Kuparinen — 2014(2) (dunja.jusufovski@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: age at maturation, European hake, fisheries-induced evolution, fishing, spawn-at-least-once

Semelparity vs. iteroparity and the number of age groups.
Veijo Kaitala, David Tesar & Esa Ranta — 2002(2) (vkaitala@cc.jyu.fi)
Keywords: evolutionarily stable strategy, iteroparity, Leslie matrix, population dynamics, reproductive schedule, semelparity

Patchy disturbance favours longer dispersal distance.
A.S. Kallimanis, W.E. Kunin, J.M. Halley & S.P. Sgardelis — 2006(3) (kalliman@bio.auth.gr)
Keywords: fractals, population model, simulations, spatial autocorrelation

The evolution of parasite dispersal, transmission and virulence in spatial host populations.
Masashi Kamo & Mike Boots — 2006(7) (masashi-kamo@aist.go.jp)
Keywords: disease, dispersal, evolution, evolutionarily stable strategy, models, parasites, spatial

Evolution of preference for consonances as a byproduct. 
Masashi Kamo & Yoh Iwasa — 2000(3)  (kamo@bio-math10.biology.kyushu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: auditory signals, consonance and dissonance, evolution of biased preference, generalization, harmonics, neural network

Symbiotic sympatric speciation through interaction-driven phenotype differentiation.
Kunihiko Kaneko & Tetsuya Yomo — 2002(3) (kaneko@complex.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp)
Keywords: development, hybrid sterility, isologous diversification, mating preference, phenotypic plasticity, sympatric speciation

Predation and the formation of multicellular groups in algae.
Stefania E. Kapsetaki, Roberta M. Fisher & Stuart A. West — 2016(5) (stefania.kapsetaki@zoo.ox.ac.uk)
Keywords: Chlorophyceae, group formation, group size, induced defence, multicellularity

How does genetic diversity change towards the range periphery? An emprical and theoretical test.
Salit Kark, Lilach Hadany, Uriel N. Safriel, Imanuel Noy-Meir, Niles Eldredge, Cristiano Tabarroni & Ettore Randi — 2008(3) (salit@hebrew.edu)
Keywords: Alectoris chukar, distribution range, genetic diversity, Israel, range periphery, sub-periphery

Maternal life history of white-tailed deer: factors affecting fetal sex allocation, conception timing, and senescence.
Gabriel R. Karns, A. M. Holland, T. D. Steury & S. S. Ditchkoff — 2014(2) (karns.36@osu.edu)
Keywords: conception timing, fetal sex allocation, mammal reproduction, maternal investment in reproduction, Odocoileus virginianus, senescence, white-tailed deer

Dietary differences among colour morphs of pygmy grasshoppers revealed by behavioural experiments and stable isotopes.
Einat Karpestam & Anders Forsman — 2011(5) (anders.forsman@lnu.se)
Keywords: colour polymorphism, insect, niche, resource partitioning, Tetrix subulata

Female life-history traits in a species pair of threespine stickleback in Mud Lake, Alaska.
Anjali D. Karve, John A. Baker & Frank A. von Hippel — 2013(2) (anjali.karve@mail.utoronto.ca)
Keywords: anadromous, benthic, breeding females, clutch size, egg mass, reproductive effort, stickleback

Interspecific pollinator movements and heterospecific incompatibility: comparisons between Phyllodoce caerulea and Phyllodoce aleutica along snowmelt gradients.
Tetsuya Kasagi & Gaku Kudo — 2005(1) (kasagi@ees.hokudai.ac.jp)
Keywords: alpine-snowbed plants, bumblebee, heterospecific incompatibility, interspecific pollinator movement, reciprocal pollination, reproductive isolation

High rates of army ant raids in the Neotropics and implications for ant colony and community structure.
Michael Kaspari & Sean O'Donnell — 2003(6) (mkaspari@ou.edu)
Keywords: ants, army ants, Ecitoninae, latitudinal gradient, life history, litter, predation, soil, tropics

A predator-prey foraging game: how does prey density influence tactics?
Merav W. Katz, Zvika Abramsky, Burt P. Kotler, Inbar Roth, Stav Livne, Ofir Altstein & Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2014(4) (zvika@bgu.ac.il)
Keywords: predator-prey foraging game, prey density, anti-predatory behaviour, marginal value theorem, optimal foraging

A predator-prey behavioural game: how does number of food patches influence foraging tactics?
Merav W. Katz, Zvika Abramsky, Burt P Kotler, Inbar Roth, Ofir Altestein & Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2014(1) (zvika@bgu.ac.il)
Keywords: predator-prey behavioural games, optimal foraging, food patches, risk of predation, fear management.

Playing the waiting game: predator and prey in a test environment.
Merav Wacht Katz, Zvika Abramsky, Burt Kotler, Ofir Altstein & Michael Rosenzweig — 2010(6) (zvika@bgu.ac.il)
Keywords: anti-predatory behaviour, foraging games, optimal foraging behaviour, predator-prey interaction

The effects of dispersal behaviour in group selection. 
Masakado Kawata — 1999(6) (kawata@mail.cc.tohoku.ac.jp
Keywords: altruistic behaviour, dispersal, individual-based model, interdemic group selection, intrademic group selection

Speciation by sexual selection in hybridizing populations without viability selection.
Masakado Kawata & Jin Yoshimura — 2000(7) (kawata@mail.cc.tohoku.ac.jp)
Keywords: reinforcement, sexual selection, speciation

Character displacement mediated by the accumulation of mutationsaffecting resource consumption abilities. 
T. Kawecki and P. Abrams — 1999(2)  
Keywords: character displacement, competition, deleterious mutations, ecological niche, specialization

Optimal tempo and defence for consumers of multiple resources.
Adam Kay & Frederick R. Adler - 2003(5) (kayxx011@umn.edu)
Keywords: defence, optimal foraging, provisioning, tempo

Geographic parthenogenesis in the Australian arid zone. I. a climatic analysis of the Heteronotia binoei complex (Gekkonidae).
Michael Kearney, Adnan Moussalli, Jared Strasburg, David Lindenmayer & Craig Moritz — 2003(7) (mkearney@bio.usyd.edu.au)
Keywords: arid zone, Australia, climate, gecko, parthenogenesis

Geographic parthenogenesis in the Australian arid zone. II. Climatic analyses of orthopteroid insects of the genera Warramaba and Sipyloidea.
Michael Kearney & Adnan Moussalli — 2003(7) (mkearney@bio.usyd.edu.au)
Keywords: arid zone, Australia, climate, grasshopper, parthenogenesis, stick insect

Soft and hard selection on plant defence traits in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Joanna L. Kelley, John R. Stinchcombe, Cynthia Weinig & Johanna Schmitt — 2005(2) (John_Stinchcombe@brown.edu)
Keywords: apical meristem damage, frequency of selective environments, genotypic selection analysis, hard selection, herbivory, soft selection, spatial variation, tolerance

The genetic correlation between flower size and water use efficiency in monkeyflowers.
John K. Kelly, Liza M. Holeski & H. S. Arathi — 2008(1) (jkk@ku.edu)
Keywords: carbon isotopes, drought, genetic correlations, Mimulus guttatus, water use efficiency

Heightened phenotypic variation and age-based fading of ultraviolet butterfly wing coloration.
Darrell J. Kemp — 2006(3) (darrell.kemp@jcu.edu.au)
Keywords: age, Colias eurytheme, iridescence, Lepidoptera, mate choice, sexual selection

Colour pattern evolution in butterflies: a phylogenetic analysis of structural ultraviolet and melanic markings in North American sulphurs.
Darrell J. Kemp, Ronald L. Rutowski & Mary Mendoza — 2005(1) (r.rutowski@asu.edu)
Keywords: Lepidoptera, mate choice, sexual selection, visual signalling

The limitations of inferring decision rule use from individuals' sampling behaviour; a computational test of old and new algorithms.
Bart J. Kensinger & Barney Luttbeg — 2014(2) (bart.kensinger@okstate.edu)
Keywords: decision rules, mate choice, foraging

Expectation, explanation, and masting.
Andrew J. Kerkhoff — 2004(7) (kerkhoff@email.arizona.edu)
Keywords: optimal life histories, reproductive allocation, seed production, stochastic-dynamic modelling

Rekindling an old flame: a haploid model for the evolution and impact of flammability in resprouting plants. 
Benjamin Kerr, D. Schwilk, A. Bergman & M. Feldman — 1999(7) (bkerr@leland.stanford.edu
Keywords: ecosystem engineering, fire, flammability, frequency-dependent selection, Mutch hypothesis, niche construction, plant population genetics, resprouting plants, stable cycles, two-locus theory, unstable cycles

Endurance in exercise is associated with courtship call rate in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus.
Tarmo Ketola, Raine Kortet & Janne S. Kotiaho — 2009(7) (tarmo.t.ketola@jyu.fi)
Keywords: condition, energy use, exercise, immunity, physiology, quality

Testing theories of sexual selection in decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus).
Tarmo Ketola, Raine Kortet & Janne S. Kotiaho — 2007(5) (tarmo.t.ketola@cc.jyu.fi)
Keywords: attraction, direct benefits, genetic compatibility, indirect benefits, pre-mating sexual selection

Viability selection against highly ornamented males.
Amber J. Keyser & Lynn M. Siefferman — 2005(4)(keyser@vancouver.wsu.edu)
Keywords: natural mortality, natural selection, sexual selection, Sialia mexicana, western bluebird, wildlife disease

Measured sanctions: legume hosts detect quantitative variation in rhizobium cooperation and punish accordingly.
E. Toby Kiers, Robert A. Rousseau & R. Ford Denison — 2006(6) (etkiers@bio.umass.edu)
Keywords: cheat, cooperation, investment, legume, mutualism, nitrogen fixation, punish, sanction, strategy, symbiosis

Adaptive gamete allocation when fertilization is external and sperm competition is absent: optimization models and evaluation using coral reef fish.
Moshe Kiflawi — 2000(8) (mkiflawi@study.haifa.ac.il)  
Keywords: external fertilization, fish, optimization, sperm allocation

The impact of thermoregulatory costs on foraging behaviour: a test with American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).
A. Marm Kilpatrick — 2003(5) (kilpatrick@conservationmedicine.org)
Keywords: foraging costs, giving-up density, temperature

Testing a mechanistic explanation for the latitudinal gradient in mammalian species diversity across North America.
A. Marm Kilpatrick, William A. Mitchell, Warren P. Porter & David J. Currie — 2006(2) (kilpatrick@conservationmedicine.org)
Keywords: energy, evolutionarily stable strategy, mammal, optimal foraging, species diversity, thermoregulation

Individual behaviour, space and predator evolution promote persistence in a two-patch system with predator switching.
Tristan Kimbrell & Robert D. Holt — 2005(1) (kimbrell@ufl.edu)
Keywords: evolution, individual-based model, memory, optimal foraging, predator switching, undermatching

Effects of age- and state-dependent allocation on offspring size and number.
Holly K. Kindsvater, Suzanne H. Alonzo, Marc Mangel & Michael B. Bonsall — 2010(3) (Holly.Kindsvater@yale.edu)
Keywords: density dependence, inter-generational transfers, life-history plasticity, maternal age, maternal effect, state dependence

Body size, colony size, abundance, and ecological impact of exotic ants in Florida's upland ecosystems.
Joshua R. King & Sanford D. Porter — 2007(5) (jking@bio.fsu.edu)
Keywords: biological invasion, body size, colony size, Formicidae, Solenopsis invicta

Size, temperature, and fitness: three rules.
Joel G. Kingsolver & Raymond B. Huey — 2008(2) (jgking@bio.unc.edu)
Keywords: body size, development time, fitness metrics, haiku, phenotypic plasticity, reaction norm, temperature

Thermal reaction norms for caterpillar growth depend on diet.
Joel G. Kingsolver, J. Gwen Shlichta, Gregory J. Ragland & Katie R. Massie — 2006(4) (jgking@bio.unc.edu)
Keywords: diet, insect growth, phenotypic plasticity, Pieris rapae, reaction norm, temperature

Experimental analyses of body size, flight and survival in pierid butterflies.
J.G. Kingsolver & R.B. Srygley — 2000(5) (jgking@u.washington.edu)
Keywords: body size, butterflies, flight, flight muscle ratio, mark—recapture, survival

Evolutionary implications of host-pathogen specificity: fitness consequences of pathogen virulence traits.
James W. Kirchner & Bitty A. Roy — 2002(1) (bit@darkwing.uoregon.edu)
Keywords: frequency-dependent selection, infectiousness, life history, parasites, specificity, transmission, virulence

The effect of inbreeding and outcrossing of Tribolium castaneum on resistance to the parasite Nosema whitei.
Niels A.G. Kerstes & K. Mathias Wegner — 2011(7) (niels.kerstes@env.ethz.ch)
Keywords: genetic diversity, genetic variation, homozygosity, host–parasite co-evolution, negative frequency-dependent selection

Trade-off geometries and the adaptive dynamics of two coevolving species.
Éva Kisdi — 2006(6) (eva.kisdi@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, co-evolution, critical function analysis, evolutionary branching, evolutionarily stable strategy, geometric analysis, predator-prey system, trade-off

Long-term adaptive diversity in Levene-type models.
Éva Kisdi — 2001(6) (eva.kisdi@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, co-existence, evolutionarily stable strategy, evolutionary branching, heterogeneous environment, polymorphism, soft selection, trade-off

Competition-colonization trade-off between perennial plants: exclusion of the rare species, hysteresis effects, and the robustness of coexistence under replacement competition.
Éva Kisdi & Stefan A. H. Geritz — 2003(4) (eva.kisdi@utu.fi)
Keywords: asymmetric competition, colonization, displacement competition, fugitive co-existence, hysteresis, perennial plants, replacement competition, safe site model, seed bank

Multiple inducible defences against multiple predators in the anuran tadpole, (Rana pirica).
Osamu Kishida & Kinya Nishimura — 2005(4) (kishida@fish.hokudai.ac.jp)
Keywords: cue, induced defence, morphology, phenotypic plasticity, polymorphism

Divergence in thyroid hormone levels between juveniles of marine and stream ecotypes of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).
Jun Kitano & Sean C. Lema — 2013(2) (jkitano@lab.nig.ac.jp)
Keywords: endocrine, phenotypic correlation, physiology, stickleback, trade-offs

The effect of developmental temperature fluctuation on wing traits and stressed locomotor performance in Drosophila melanogaster, and its dependence on heterozygosity.
Anders Kjćrsgaard, Nguyet Le, Ditte Demontis, Zorana Kurbalija Novičič & Volker Loeschcke — 2012(7) (anders.kjaersgaard@biology.au.dk)
Keywords: climate change, environmental variation, inbreeding depression, locomotor activity, non-linear reaction norm

Coprolites in a Middle Triassic cycad pollen cone: evidence for insect pollination in early cycads?
Sharon D. Klavins, Derek W. Kellogg, Michael Krings, Edith L. Taylor & Thomas N. Taylor — 2005(3) (sklavins@ku.edu)
Keywords: coprolites, Cycadales, insects, pollinivory, Triassic

Adaptive divergence in contiguous populations of Darwin's Small Ground Finch (Geospiza fuliginosa).
Sonia Kleindorfer, Thomas W. Chapman, Hans Winkler & Frank J. Sulloway — 2006(2) (sonia.kleindorfer@flinders.edu.au)
Keywords: allopatry, Darwin's finches, foraging, morphology, phenotypic divergence, speciation, sympatry

Evidence for Rensch?s rule in an orb-web spider with moderate sexual size dimorphism.
Anja Kleinteich & Jutta M. Schneider — 2010(5) (anja.kleinteich@uni-hamburg.de)
Keywords: bridge spider, genotype × × environment interaction, Larinioides sclopetarius, life history, Rensch?s rule, sexual size dimorphism

Regressive evolution of the pelvic complex in stickleback fishes: a study of convergent evolution.
Tom Klepaker, Kjartan Østbye & Michael A. Bell — 2013(4) (Tom.Klepaker@bio.uib.no)
Keywords: convergent evolution, directional asymmetry, Gasterosteidae, pelvic reduction, regressive evolution, stickleback

Spatio-temporal patterns in pelvic reduction in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) in Lake Storvatnet.
Tom Klepaker, Kjartan Østbye, Louis Bernatchez & L. Asbjørn Vøllestad — 2012(2) (Tom.Klepaker@bio.uib.no)
Keywords: assortative mating, natural selection, ontogeny, pelvic reduction, regressive evolution, structural mutation dynamics

Selective agents in the adaptive radiation of Hebridean sticklebacks.
Tom Klepaker, Kjartan Østbye, Rowena Spence, Mirosław Przybylski, Mark Warren & Carl Smith — 2016(2) (cs101@st-andrews.ac.uk)
Keywords: adaptation, ion concentration, natural selection, phenotypic adaptation, Scottish Galapagos, selective landscape, stickleback, trout predation.

Local adaptation within a population of Hydrocotyle bonariensis.
Tiffany Knight & Thomas E. Miller — 2004(1) (tknight@biology2.wustl.edu)
Keywords: clonal reproduction, Hydrocotyle bonariensis, local adaptation, reciprocal transplant, within-population genetic differentiation

Contrasting niche-based variation in trophic morphology within Arctic charr populations.
Rune Knudsen, Per-Arne Amundsen, Raul Primicerio, Anders Klemetsen & Pĺl Sřrensen — 2007(6) (runek@nfh.uit.no)
Keywords: adaptive trophic morphology, feeding, incipient speciation, polymorphism, post-glacial fish, Salvelinus alpinus

Acorn harvesting by acorn woodpeckers: annual variation and comparison with genetic estimates.
Walter D. Koenig, Jay P. McEntee & Eric. L. Walters — 2008(6) (wdk4@cornell.edu)
Keywords: acorn woodpecker, caching behaviour, dispersal, foraging strategy, Melanerpes formicivorus, oaks, seed movement

Ecological traps in changing environments: ecological and evolutionary consequences of a behaviourally mediated Allee effect.
Hanna Kokko & William J. Sutherland — 2001(5) (h.kokko@bio.gla.ac.uk)
Keywords: ecological trap, extinction, habitat selection, ideal despotic distribution, philopatry, social learning, source-sink dynamics.

Co-evolution of nuptial gift and female multiple mating resulting in diverse breeding systems.
Michio Kondoh — 2001(1) (kondoh@ecology.kyoto-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: breeding system, co-evolution, conflict resolution, nuptial gift, polyandry

Testing for local adaptation in the Gasterosteus–Gyrodactylus host-parasite system.
Nellie Konijnendijk, Joost A. M. Raeymaekers, Sandra Vandeuren, Lize Jacquemin & Filip A. M. Volckaert — 2013(4) (Nellie.Konijnendijk@bio.kuleuven.be)
Keywords: Gasterosteus aculeatus, Gyrodactylus gasterostei, host–parasite interactions, local adaptation, immune competence, stickleback

The sexually selected sperm hypothesis, maternal effects, and sperm competitive success in the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini.
Magdalena Konior, Jacek Radwan & Laurent Keller — 2009(6) (magdalena.konior@uj.edu.pl)
Keywords: bulb mite, maternal effects, polyandry, sexually selected sperm hypothesis, sperm competition

Environmental predictability and the cost of imperfect information: influences on offspring size variability.
Marten Koops, Jeffrey Huchings & Blair Adams — 2003(1) (marten.koops@dal.ca)
Keywords: brook trout, egg size variability, environmental predictability, imperfect information, life-history decisions, Salvelinus fontinalis

Boldness in anti-predator behaviour and immune defence in field crickets.
Raine Kortet, Markus J. Rantala & Ann Hedrick — 2007(1) (rkortet@cc.jyu.fi>)
Keywords: anti-predator response, cost, field cricket, Gryllus, immunocompetence

Sexual ornamentation, androgens and papillomatosis in male roach (Rutilus rutilus).
Raine Kortet, Anssi Vainikka, Markus J. Rantala, Ilmari Jokinen & Jouni Taskinen — 2003(3) (rkortet@cc.jyu.fi)
Keywords: immunocompetence, 11-ketotestosterone, ornaments, papillomatosis, sexual selection, testosterone

Experimental evolution of sexual host populations in response to sterilizing parasites.
Britt Koskella, Daniela Vergara & Curtis M. Lively — 2011(3) (bkoskell@googlemail.com)
Keywords: cost of resistance, host–parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, Red Queen hypothesis, specificity of resistance

Effects of taxon abundance distributions on expected number of sampled taxa.
Matthew A. Kosnik & Peter J. Wagner — 2006(2) (mkosnik@alumni.uchicago.edu)
Keywords: abundance distributions, evenness, geometric, log-normal, Pielou's J, sampled diversity, sampled richness, Zipf

Foraging games between gerbils and their predators: temporal dynamics of resource depletion and apprehension in gerbils.
Burt P. Kotler, Joel S. Brown, Sasha R. X. Dall, Shaan Gresser, David Ganey & Amos Bouskila — 2002(4) (gerbil@uic.edu )
Keywords: apprehension, ecology of fear, foraging behaviour, foraging games, game theory, gerbils, giving-up density, optimal patch use, owls, predator-prey interactions, resource depletion, risk of predation, temporal partitioning, vigilance

Allocation of energy between growth and reproduction: The Pontryagin Maximum Principle solution for the case of age- and season dependent mortality. 
J. Kozlowski and A. T. Teriokhin — 1999(4)  
Keywords: age at maturity, Bertalanffy's growth curve, life-history evolution, optimal resource allocation, Pontryagin Maximum Principle, seasonality

Potential life history costs of parasitoid avoidance in Drosophila melanogaster.
Alex R. Kraaijeveld & H.Charles J. Godfray — 2003(8) ( a.kraayeveld@imperial.ac.uk)
Keywords: cost of resistance, Drosophila, life-history evolution, Pachycrepoideus, pupal parasitoid, trade-offs

Is there local adaptation in Drosophila-parasitoid interactions?
A.R. Kraaijeveld & H.C.J. Godfray — 2001(1) (a.kraayeveld@ic.ac.uk)
Keywords: encapsulation, local adaptation, parasitoid, resistance, virulence

Cellular responses in the coral Stylophora pistillata exposed to eutrophication from fish mariculture.
Esti Kramarsky-Winter, C. A. Downs, A. Downs & Yossi Loya — 2009(3) (wintere@post.tau.ac.il)
Keywords: biomarkers, cellular diagnostics, coral, fish-farm, Gulf of Aqaba (Eilat)

Reproductive mode and split sex ratios in the facultatively ovoviviparous thrips, Bactrothrips brevitubus.
Brenda D. Kranz, Tomohiro Shibata, Koji Tsuchida & Shuji Okajima — 2002(7) (brendakranz@bigpond.com)
Keywords: egg mass, haplodiploidy, ovoviviparity, reproductive mode, split sex ratios, thrips

Touch-sensitive glandular trichomes: a mode of defence against herbivorous arthropods in the Carboniferous.
Michael Krings, Thomas N. Taylor & Derek W. Kellogg — 2002(5) (Krings@uni-muenster.de)
Keywords: Upper Carboniferous, defense mechanism, glandular trichome, herbivory, seed fern

Phenotypic correlations reveal evidence for growth costs but not survival costs of reproduction in a freshwater snail.
Amy C. Krist — 2008(7) (krist@uwyo.edu)
Keywords: cost of reproduction, genotype×environment interaction, life-history traits, phenotypic correlation, trade-offs

Prevalence of parasites does not predict age at first reproduction or reproductive output in the freshwater snail, Helisoma anceps.
Amy C. Krist — 2006(4) (krist@uwyo.edu)
Keywords: age at first reproduction, castrating parasites, freshwater snails, life-history theory, reproductive output, trematodes

Variation in fecundity among populations of snails is predicted by prevalence of castrating parasites.
Amy C. Krist — 2001(2) (krist@uwyo.edu)  
Keywords: castrating parasites, fecundity compensation, life-history theory, reproduction, snails, trematodes

Rapid divergence in a recently isolated population of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.).
Bjarni K. Kristjansson, Skúli Skulason & David L. G. Noakes — 2002(5) (bjakk@holar.is)
Keywords: Resource polymorphism, evolution, sexual dimorphism, Iceland, adaptation

Inbreeding affects Hsp70 expression in two species of Drosophila even at benign temperatures.
Torsten Nygaard Kristensen, Jesper Dahlgaard & Volker Loeschcke — 2002(8) (torsten.nygaard@nordgen.org)
Keywords: Drosophila buzzatii, Drosophila melanogaster, Hsp70, inbreeding, protein conformation, temperature stress

Inconsistent effects of developmental temperature acclimation on low-temperature performance and metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster.
Torsten Nygaard Kristensen, Johannes Overgaard, Ary A. Hoffmann, Niels Chr. Nielsen & Anders Malmendal — 2012(7) (torsten.nygaard@nordgen.org)
Keywords: beneficial acclimation hypothesis, cold tolerance, fluctuating vs. constant temperatures, life-history traits, metabolomics, plasticity, semi-natural conditions

The use of fluctuating asymmetry and phenotypic variability as indicators of developmental instability: a test of a new method employing clonal organisms and high temperature stress.
Torsten Nygaard Kristensen, Cino Pertoldi, Ditte Holm Andersen & Volker Loeschcke — 2003(1) (torsten.nygaard@nordgen.org)
Keywords: clonal organism, developmental instability, Drosophila mercatorum, environmental variation, short-term heat stress

Competitive coexistence caused by adaptive predators.
Vlastimil Křivan — 2003(8) (krivan@entu.cas.cz)
Keywords: adaptive foraging, competition, food web, keystone predator, persistence, stability

On evolutionary stability in predator–prey models with fast behavioral dynamics.
Vlastimil Křivan & Ross Cressman — 2009(2) (vlastimil.krivan@gmail.com)
Keywords: adaptive foraging, evolutionarily stable strategies, G-function, game theory, ideal free distribution, population dynamics, predator-prey games

Adaptive foraging and flexible food web topology.
Vlastimil Křivan & Oswald J. Schmitz — 2003(5) (krivan@entu.cas.cz)
Keywords: adaptive foraging, food chain, food web, food web structure, omnivory, patch choice

Do short-term behavioural responses of consumers in tri-trophic food chains persist at the population time-scale?
Vlastimil Křivan & Etienne Sirot — 2004(7) (krivan@entu.cas.cz)
Keywords: adaptive foraging, anti-predator behaviour, feeding efficiency-predation risk trade-off, food chain, population dynamics, trait-mediated indirect interactions, trophic cascade

Genome diversity under stress in a cyanobacterium Nostic linckia at Evolution Canyon Israel, revealed by inter-HIP1 size polymorphism.
Tamar Krugman, N. Satish, O.N. Vinogradova, A. Beharav, Y. Kashi & E. Nevo — 2001(8) (krugman@research.haifa.ac.il)
Keywords: cyanobacteria, DNA, ecological heterogeneity and stress, 'Evolution Canyon', genetic polymorphism, HIP1

Range border formation in a world with increasing climatic variance.
Alexander Kubisch & Hans-Joachim Poethke — 2011(2) (kubisch@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de)
Keywords: climate change, density-dependent emigration, environmental gradient, environmental stochasticity, individual-based model, range formation, range shift

The flora of German cities is naturally species rich.
Ingolf Kühn, Roland Brandl & Stefan Klotz — 2004(5) (ingolf.kuehn@ufz.de)
Keywords: alien plants, environmental correlates, environmental heterogeneity, native plants, resampling methods, species richness, urbanization

Population dynamics of Batesian mimicry under interspecific competition.
Fuga Kumazawa, Takahiro Asami, Tarou Hayashi & Jin Yoshimura — 2006(4) (asami99@shinshu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: Batesian mimicry, frequency dependence, Lotka-Volterra competition, predation

On comparative analyses involving non-heritable traits: why half a loaf is sometimes worse than none.
William E. Kunin — 2008(6) (w.e.kunin@leeds.ac.uk)
Keywords: abundance, comparative method, correlated traits, distribution, heritability, independent contrasts, phylogenetic analyses

Developmental threshold model challenged by temperature.
Anna Kuparinen, Ane T. Laugen, Anssi Laurila & Juha Merilä — 2010(7) (anna.kuparinen@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: development, growth, metamorphosis, Rana temporaria, temperature, threshold size

Evolution of active and passive forms of plasticity: insights from artificially selected Arabidopsis.
Nile S. Kurashige & Hilary S. Callahan — 2007(6) (hcallahan@barnard.edu)
Keywords: adaptive phenotypic plasticity, Arabidopsis thaliana, artificial selection, cold acclimation, genetic constraint, genetic differentiation, red: far-red, shade avoidance

Immune defence, dispersal and local adaptation.
Joachim Kurtz, Kirsten Klappert, Wolfgang Schneider & Klaus Reinhold — 2002(3) (kurtz@mpil-ploen.mpg.de)
Keywords: Chorthippus biguttulus, dispersal, host resistance, immunocompetence, invertebrate immunity, local adaptation, phagocytosis, reciprocal transfer

Shifts in life-history traits of two introduced populations of threespine stickleback.
Meredith L. Kurz, David C. Heins, Michael A. Bell & Frank A. von Hippel — 2016(2) (mkurz@udel.edu)
Keywords: clutch mass, clutch size, egg mass, Gasterosteus aculeatus, reproduction, reproductive effort, threespine stickleback.

From the bare minimum: genetics and selection in populations founded by only a few parents.
Jacques Labonne, Renaud Kaeuffer, François Guéraud, Mingsha Zhou, Aurélie Manicki & Andrew P. Hendry — 2016(1) (labonne@st-pee.inra.fr)
Keywords: genetic variation, heterozygosity, inbreeding, invasion, small population.

Sex-ratio variation and spatial distribution of nuclear and cytoplasmic sex-determining genes in gynodioecious Thymus praecox across altitudinal gradients.
Urs Landergott, J. Jakob Schneller, Rolf Holderegger & John D. Thompson — 2009(1) (urs.landergott@gmx.net)
Keywords: cost of restoration, cytoplasmic male sterility, ecological gradient, gynodioecy, local adaptation, nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions, offspring sex ratio

On the adaptive function of gamete trading in the black hamlet Hypoplectrus nigricans.
Michael A. Landolfa — 2002(8) (landolfa@mpi-cbg.de)
Keywords: egg trading, gamete trading, good genes, hermaphrodites, sexual signals

Sexual selection paves the road to sexual isolation during ecological speciation.
R. Brian Langerhans & Amber M. Makowicz 2013(6) (langerhans@ncsu.edu)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, mate recognition, mating behaviours, natural selection, predation, sexual selection, speciation

Plasticity constrained: Overgeneralized induction cues cause maladaptive phenotypes.
R. Brian Langerhans & Thomas J. DeWitt — 2002(6) (brianl@tamu.edu)
Keywords: evolutionary constraint, geometric morphometrics, inducible defences, multiple predators, phenotypic plasticity, shell morphology, trait-mediated indirect effects

Pollen competitive ability: The effect of proportion in two-donor crosses.
Ĺsa Lankinen and Io Skogsmyr — 2002(5) (Asa.Lankinen@teorekol.lu.se)
Keywords: pollen competition, pollen interactions, pollen tube growth rate, sexual selection in plants, Viola tricolor

Testing the metabolic cold adaptation hypothesis: an intraspecific latitudinal comparison in the common woodlouse.
Marco A. Lardies, Leonardo D. Bacigalupe & Francisco Bozinovic — 2004(4) (mlardies@genes.bio.puc.cl)
Keywords: latitudinal cline, local adaptation, metabolism, Porcellio laevis, temperature

Genetic variation for plasticity in physiological and life-history traits among populations of an invasive species, the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis.
Marco A. Lardies & Francisco Bozinovic — 2008(5) (fbozinovic@bio.puc.cl)
Keywords: common garden approach, geographic variation, micro-evolution, reaction norm, reproductive output

Geographic covariation between metabolic rate and life-history traits.
Marco A. Lardies & Francisco Bozinovic — 2006(3) (mlardies@santotomas.cl)
Keywords: latitudinal variation, metabolism, physiology-life history covariation, reproductive output, trade-offs

Species interactions in a changing environment: elevated CO2 alters the ecological and potential evolutionary consequences of competition.
Jennifer A. Lau, Ruth G. Shaw, Peter B. Reich & Peter Tiffin — 2010(4) (jenlau@msu.edu)
Keywords: carbon dioxide, competition, effect size, global change, indirect effect, natural selection, resource availability

Do common frogs (Rana temporaria) follow Bergmann's rule?
Ane T. Laugen, Anssi Laurila, K. Ingemar Jönsson, Fredrik Söderman & Juha Merilä — 2005(5) (juha.merila@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: age, amphibians, body size, cline, growth, latitude, temperature

Role of early life-history constraints and resource polymorphism in the segregation of sympatric populations of an estuarine fish.
Frédéric Lecomte & Julian J. Dodson — 2004(5) (Julian.Dodson@bio.ulaval.ca)
Keywords: adult morphology, benthic/pelagic ecotypes, diet overlap, early life-history constraints, ecological speciation, larval retention areas, mtDNA, Osmerus mordax, rainbow smelt, recruitment, St. Lawrence middle estuary

Non-equilibrium genetic structure is insensitive to the shape of the dispersal distribution.
Charlotte T. Lee & Alan Hastings — 2006(2) (charlotte.lee@stanford.edu)
Keywords: dispersal kernel, genetic structure, kurtosis, long-distance dispersal, pattern formation, spatial autocorrelation

Environmental integration: patterns of correlation between environmental factors, early life decisions, and their long-term consequences.
Who-Seung Lee, Marc Mangel & Pedro Peres-Neto — 2016(1) (whoseung@gmail.com)
Keywords: climate change, developmental phenotype, dynamic state model, growth, life history, reproduction.

Simplicity from complexity: emergence of cohesion in the evolutionary dynamics of grammar networks.
Yoosook Lee, Travis C. Collier, Charles E. Taylor, & Reza Olfati-Saber — 2009(3) (yoslee@ucdavis.edu)
Keywords: evolutionary dynamics, grammar networks, language evolution

Evolution of maximal endurance capacity: natural and sexual selection across age classes in a lizard.
Jean-François Le Galliard & Regis Ferričre — 2008(2) (galliard@biologie.ens.fr)
Keywords: locomotor performance, microevolution, reproductive success, squamate reptiles, survival

Deer mice mediate red-backed vole behavior and abundance along a gradient of habitat alteration.
Jèrôme Lemaître, Daniel Fortin, Douglas W.

is & Marcel Darveau — 2010(2) (jerome.lemaitre.1@ulaval.ca)
Keywords: adaptive foraging behaviour, asset-protection principle, behavioural indicator, competition, giving-up density, habitat alteration, habitat selection, Myodes gapperi, Peromyscus maniculatus, predation risk, quitting-harvest rate

Time management in great apes: implications for gorilla biogeography.
Julia Lehmann, Amanda H. Korstjens & R.I.M. Dunbar — 2008(4) (j.lehmann@roehampton.ac.uk)
Keywords: activity budget, biogeography, gorilla, group size, time budget model

Biodiversity and nutrient enrichment in pond plankton communities. 
M. Leibold — 1999(1)  
Keywords: biodiversity, phytoplankton, predation, productivity, zooplankton

Multidimensional convergence stability.
Olof Leimar — 2009(2) (olof.leimar@zoologi.su.se)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, canonical equation, evolutionary stability, genetic correlations

Adapting to global change.
Jennifer A. Leonard — 2014(6) (jleonard@ebd.csic.es)
Introduction to a special collection edited by Jennifer Leonard & Michael Rosenzweig

Ecology drives evolution in gray wolves.
Jennifer Leonard — 2014(6) (JLeonard@ebd.csic.es)
Keywords: adaptation, Canis lupus, extinction, isolation by environment, phylogeography, population structure

Pelvic girdle reduction and asymmetry in threespine stickleback from Wallace Lake, Alaska.
Emily A. Lescak, Frank A. von Hippel, Richard R. Bernhardt & Michael A. Bell — 2013(2) (elescak@alaska.edu)
Keywords: directional asymmetry, disruptive selection, fluctuating asymmetry, frequency-dependent selection, stickleback

A field test of the extent of bias in selection estimates after accounting for emigration.
Benjamin H. Letcher, Gregg E. Horton, Todd L. Dubreuil, Matthew J. O'Donnell — 2005(4) (bletcher@forwild.umass.edu )
Keywords: Atlantic salmon, emigration, selection, selection differentials, size dependence

The behavior and diet breadth of central-place foragers: an application to human hunters and neotropical game management.
Taal Levi, Flora Lu, Douglas W. Yu & Marc Mangel — 2011(2) (trlevi@ucsc.edu)
Keywords: behavioural ecology, central-place forager, diet breadth, marginal value theorem, optimal foraging theory, state-variable models, stochastic dynamic programming

Dan Cohen — An inquiring mind.
Simon Levin & Yoh Iwasa — 2000(4) (sLevin@eno.princeton.edu)

The evolution of dispersal and seed size in plant communities.
Simon Levin & H. Muller-Landau — 2000(4) (sLevin@eno.princeton.edu)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, evolutionarily stable strategy, seed dispersal, seed size

Climatic factors and increased frequencies of 'southern' chromosome forms in natural populations of Drosophila robusta.
Max Levitan — 2003(4) (max.levitan@mssm.edu)
Keywords: climatic factors, Drosophila robusta, evolution, gene arrangements, historical changes, paracentric inversions

Natural selection favors harmful male Drosophila melanogaster that reduce the survival of females.
Timothy A. Lew & William R. Rice — 2005(4) (rice@lifesci.ucsb.edu)
Keywords: inter-locus contest evolution, sexual conflict, sexual selection, sexually antagonistic co-evolution

Density- and frequency-dependent inbreeding depression in the Australian annual Hibiscus trionum var. vesicarius.
Namgay Lhamo, Mike Ramsey & Glenda Vaughton — 2006(4) (mramsey@une.edu.au)
Keywords: asymmetric competition, density dependence, frequency dependence, mixed mating, self-fertilization, selfing rate, size hierarchy

Sex ratio shifts of the solitary parasitoid wasp, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), to other foundresses.
Qian Li, Lei Xie, Wei Chen, Xin Fang, Feng-Fei Zhang & Hao-Yuan Hu — 2014(7) (haoyuanhu@126.com)
Keywords: behaviour, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae, solitary parasitoid wasp, sex ratio, local mate competition

Evidence of pre-zygotic reproductive isolation between Prunus armeniaca and Prunus mume.
Xiaoying Li, Lingfei Shangguan, Yuzhu Wang, Nicholas K. Korir, Chen Wang, Junhuang Zhang, Changnian Song & Jinggui Fang — 2011(7) (fanggg@njau.edu.cn)
Keywords: pre-zygotic isolation, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus mume, research, speciation

Cryptic divergence: countergradient variation in the wood frog.
Nisha F. Ligon & David K. Skelly — 2009(7) (nisha.ligon@gmail.com)
Keywords: amphibian, countergradient variation, cryptic, divergence, light, microgeography, phenotypic variation, temperature

How a pitcher plant facilitates roosting of mutualistic woolly bats.
Yen Shan Lim, Caroline R. Schöner, Michael G. Schöner, Gerald Kerth, Daniel G. Thornham, Mathias Scharmann & T. Ulmar Grafe — 2014(7) (grafe@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de)
Keywords: Borneo, carnivorous plants, Kerivoula hardwickii, mutualism, Nepenthes, roosting behaviour

Predators feeding on behaviourally responsive prey: some implications for classical models of optimal diet choice.
Steven L. Lima, William A. Mitchell & Timothy C. Roth, II — 2003(7) (S-Lima@indstate.edu)
Keywords: anti-predator behaviour, diet models, foraging theory, partial preferences, predator-prey interactions, prey management, vigilance

Patch quality and landscape connectivity effects on patch population size: implications for metapopulation sizes and studies of landscape value.
Catherine A. Lindell & Brian A. Maurer — 2010(2) (maurerb@msu.edu)
Keywords: landscape connectivity, landscape value, metapopulation, patch population size, patch quality

A method for calculating means and variances of comparative data for use in a phylogenetic analysis of variance.
Patrik Lindenfors — 2006(6) (Patrik.Lindenfors@zoologi.su.se)
Keywords: analysis of variance, comparative methods, independent contrasts, phylogenies

Thyme is of the essence: biochemical polymorphism and multi-species deterrence. 
Y. B. Linhart and J. D. Thompson — 1999(2)  
Keywords: genetic polymorphism, herbivory, Mediterranean ecosystems, monoterpene variation, Thymus vulgaris

Cultural artifacts: a comparison of senescence in natural, lab-adapted and artificially selected lines of Drosophila melanogaster.
Catherine Linnen, Marc Tatar & Daniel E.L.Promislow — 2001(8) (promislow@arches.uga.edu)
Keywords: antagonistic pleiotropy, artificial selection, Drosophila, laboratory culture, mutation accumulation, senescence

Parasite transgenerational effects on infection.
Tom Little, Jane Birch, Pedro Vale & Michelle Tseng — 2007(3) (tom.little@ed.ac.uk)
Keywords: Daphnia, genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction, maternal effect, parasitism, Pasteuria, pathogen, virulence

An association between floral sex allocation and floral longevity in a non-sequentially blooming ladybell.
Chang-Qiu Liu & Shuang-Quan Huang — 2013(8) (hsq@mail.ccnu.edu.cn)
Keywords: Adenophora jasionifolia, Campanulaceae, dichogamy, floral longevity, floral sex allocation, mating-environment hypothesis, pollen–ovule ratio, pollen removal and receipt

Feedbacks between ecology and evolution: interactions between ΔN and Δp in a life-history model.
Curtis M. Lively — 2012(3) (clively@indiana.edu)
Keywords: eco-evolutionary feedback, fundamental theorem of natural selection, population ecology, theoretical ecology, theoretical population genetics

The cost of males in non-equilibrium populations.
Curtis M. Lively — 2011(1) (clively@indiana.edu)
Keywords: cost of males, K-selection, maintenance of sex, non-equilibrium populations, r-selection

Competitive coexistence of vertically and horizontally transmitted parasites.
Curtis M. Lively, Keith Clay, Michael J. Wade and Clay Fuqua — 2005(8) (clively@indiana.edu)
Keywords: horizontal transmission, pathogen, symbiont, vertical transmission, virulence

Experimental test for a coevolutionary hotspot in a host-parasite interaction.
Curtis M. Lively, Lynda F. Delph, Mark F. Dybdahl & Jukka Jokela — 2008(1) (clively@indiana.edu)
Keywords: co-evolution, local adaptation, Microphallus, parasitism, parthenogenesis, ploidy, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Trematoda

Temporal and spatial distributions of parasites and sex in a freshwater snail.
Curtis M. Lively & Jukka Jokela — 2002(2) (clively@indiana.edu)
Keywords: Microphallus, New Zealand, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Red Queen hypothesis, sexual reproduction

What factors shape sexual size dimorphism in ungulates? 
A. Loison, J.-M. Gaillard, C. Pélabon & N. G. Yoccoz — 1999(5)  
Keywords: allometry, feeding habits, habitat, level of polygyny, sexual size dimorphism, ungulates

Ejaculate investment in a promiscuous rodent, Peromyscus maniculatus: effects of population density and social role.
Tristan A.F. Long & Robert Montgomerie — 2006(2) (longt@biology.queensu.ca)
Keywords: ejaculate investment, mating system, Peromyscus maniculatus, population density, sexual selection, sperm competition, testicular mass

Condition-dependent sexual selection can accelerate adaptation.
Patrick D. Lorch, Stephen Proulx, Locke Rowe & Troy Day — 2003(6) (plorch@email.unc.edu)
Keywords: Fisher process, good genes, individual-based model, simulation

The selection of social actions in families: 1. A collective fitness approach.
David G. Lloyd — 2000(1) (clively@indiana.edu)
Keywords: collective fitness, inclusive fitness, kin selection, relatedness, social behaviour

The selection of social actions in families: 2. Parental investment.
David G. Lloyd — 2000(1) (clively@indiana.edu)
Keywords: collective fitness, inclusive fitness, kin selection, parent—offspring conflict

The selection of social action in families: 3. Reproductively disabled individuals and organs.
David G. Lloyd — 2000(1) (clively@indiana.edu)
Keywords: disabled seeds, endosperm, feeding anthers, parent—offspring conflict, self-incompatibility, sterile castes, sterile pollen

A predation risk-and-avoidance model of nestling responses to parental vocalizations.
Justin Lock & Mark E. Hauber — 2012(2) (lock.justin.c@gmail.com)
Keywords: nestling begging, parental vocalizations, predation, predator avoidance

For a few males more: do changes in sex ratio predict reproductive success and offspring survival?
Thierry Lodé — 2009(1) (thierry.lode@univ-rennes1.fr)
Keywords: fitness, mating success, operational sex ratio, survival

Plastic response to pond drying in tadpoles Rana temporaria: tests of cost models.
Jon Loman & Didrik Claesson — 2003(2) (jon.loman@zooekol.lu.se)
Keywords: adaptation, anuran, hydroperiod, metamorphosis, microevolution, plasticity

Scramble and contest competition, unequal resource allocation, and resource monopolization as determinants of population dynamics.
Adam Łomnicki — 2009(3) (adam.lomnicki@uj.edu.pl)
Keywords: population stability and persistence, resource monopolization, scramble and contest competition, unequal resource allocation

Population regulation by dispersal under selection pressure for and against dispersal: an experimental test with beetles, Tribolium confusum.
Adam Łomnicki — 2006(1) (lomnicki@eko.uj.edu.pl)
Keywords: metapopulation, migration, population density, Tribolium laboratory populations

Carrying capacity, competition and maintenance of sexuality.
Adam Łomnicki — 2001(5) (lomnicki@eko.uj.edu.pl)
Keywords: asexual and sexual reproduction, density dependence, interspecies competition, logistic equation, niche width, population.

An assembly rule could explain the canonical property of the lognormal species-abundance distribution.
Julián Simón López-Villalta — 2014(4) (jsimon@edu.jccm.es)
Keywords: assembly rules, biodiversity, community ecology, macroecology, niche assembly, resource partitioning

Geographic range size and speciation in Mediterranean land birds.
Julián Simón López-Villalta — 2011(7) (jsimon@edu.jccm.es)
Keywords: allopatric speciation, macroecology, macroevolution, Mediterranean region

The rate and pattern of tail autotomy in five species of Puerto Rican anoles.
Karen R. Lovely, D. Luke Mahler & Liam J. Revell — 2010(1) (lrevell@nescent.org)
Keywords: Anolis, caudal, maximum likelihood, predation, regeneration, simulation

The presence of active larvae delays the emergence of conspecifics in the tupelo leafminer, Antispila nysaefoliella.
Candace Low — 2010(4) (cl754@cornell.edu)
Keywords: aggregation, competition, delayed hatching, density dependence, hatching asynchrony, life-history timing, plant-insect interactions

Higher dimorphism and lower phenotypic integration in reproductive traits compared to vegetative traits in a gynodioecious orchid.
Yang Lu & Shuang-Quan Huang — 2010(2) (sqhuang@whu.edu.cn)
Keywords: gynodioecious orchid, phenotypic integration, ramification, reproductive traits, sexual dimorphism, vegetative traits

Bayesian analysis of split sex ratios: methods and application to the ant Aphaenogaster rudis.
David Lubertazzi & Eldridge S. Adams — 2010(2) (lubertazzi@gmail.org)
Keywords: ant sex ratios, Aphaenogaster rudis, Bayesian logistic regression models, hierarchical models, split sex ratios

Patterns of asymmetry in wing traits of three island and one continental population of Merodon albifrons (Diptera, Syrphidae) from Greece.
Jasmina Ludoški, Marko Djurakic, Gunilla Stĺhls, Vesna Milankov — 2012(7) (jasmina.ludoski@dbe.uns.ac.rs)
Keywords: developmental instability, fluctuating asymmetry, geometric morphometrics, Merodon albifrons, wing size and shape

Optimal population harvesting in a source-sink environment. 
Per Lundberg & N. Jonzen — 1999(6) (PHL@volterra.teorekol.Lu.se
Keywords: dispersal, harvesting theory, population harvesting, population management, population stability, source-sink dynamics

Of mice, mastodons, and men: human mediated extinctions on four continents.
S. Kathleen Lyons, Felisa A. Smith & James H. Brown — 2004(3) (lyons@nceas.ucsb.edu)
Keywords: body size distributions, climate change, human hunting, late Pleistocene, megafaunal extinction, size-biased extinction

The role of resource availability and state-dependence in the foraging strategy of blood-feeding mosquitoes.
Brian O. Ma & Bernard D. Roitberg — 2008(8) (bom@sfu.ca)
Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, dynamic state variable model, foraging behaviour, mosquitoes, omnivores, resource availability, state-dependence, vector-borne disease control

Magic cues versus magic preferences in speciation.
Martine E. Maan & Ole Seehausen — 2012(6) (m.e.maan@rug.nl)
Keywords: direct selection, indirect selection, linkage disequilibrium, mate choice, sexual selection

Incomplete sampling of geographic ranges weakens or reverses the positive relationship between an animal species' geographic range size and its body size.
Joshua S. Madin & S. Kathleen Lyons — 2005(4) (madin@nceas.ucsb.edu)
Keywords: body size, latitude, mammals, partial sampling, range size

Trophic polymorphism in a terrestrial salamander.
John C. Maerz, Erin M. Myers & Dean C. Adams — 2006(1) (jmaerz@forestry.uga.edu)
Keywords: geometric morphometrics, Plethodon cinereus, resource use, salamander, trophic polymorphism

Evolutionary divergence in replicate pairs of ecotypes of Lake Victoria cichlid fish.
I. S. Magalhaes, B. Lundsgaard-Hansen, S. Mwaiko & Ole Seehausen — 2012(4) (ole.seehausen@eawag.ch)
Keywords: divergent selection, FST, speciation, trophic polymorphism

Cooperation and competition in heterogeneous environments: the evolution of resource sharing in clonal plants.
Krisztián Mágori, Beáta Oborny, Ulf Dieckmann & Géza Meszéna — 2003(6) (beata@ludens.elte.hu)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, cellular automata, clonal growth, competition, cooperation, patchy habitats, physiological integration, plant development, spatially structured populations

Adaptive dynamics on a lattice: role of spatiality in competition, co-existence and evolutionary branching.
Krisztián Mágori, Peter Szabó, Ferenc Mizera, Géza Meszéna — 2005(1) (cta@angel.elte.hu)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, contact process, evolutionary branching, interacting particle system, limited dispersal

Contingency and determinism during convergent contemporary evolution in the polymorphic land snail, Cepaea nemoralis.
Małgorzata Ożgo and Michael T. Kinnison — 2008(5) (mozgo.biol@interia.pl)
Keywords: climatic selection, genetic architecture, introduced species, microclimate, natural selection, parallel evolution

The struggle for existence: How the notion of carrying capacity, K, obscures the links between demography, Darwinian evolution and speciation.
James Mallet (Appendix 1, p660-661, by JM & Wei-Chung Liu) — 2012(5) (jmallet@oeb.harvard.edu)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, density-dependent selection, eco-evolutionary dynamics, history of ecology, population genetics, theoretical ecology

Negative relationship between plumage color and breeding output in female great tits, Parus major.
Raivo Mänd, Vallo Tilgar & Anders P. Mřller — 2005(7) (raivo.mand@ut.ee)
Keywords: body mass, breeding success, carotenoids, conditional strategy, good parent hypothesis, Parus major, plumage hue

Structurally complex habitat and sensory adaptations mediate the behavioural responses of a desert rodent to an indirect cue for increased predation risk.
Yael Mandelik, Menna Jones & Tamar Dayan — 2003(4) (myael@post.tau.ac.il)
Keywords: Acomys cahirinus, foraging pattern, giving-up density, habitat structure, moonlight, predation risk, predator refuges, rocky desert, structural complexity

Environment and longevity: Emergence without interaction, multiple steady states and stochastic clocks.
Marc Mangel — 2002(7) (msmangel@cats.ucsc.edu)
Keywords: ageing, free radicals, life span, longevity, oxidative damage

Irreducible certainties, sustainable fisheries and marine reserves.
Marc S. Mangel — 2000(4) (msmangel@cats.ucsc.edu)
Keywords: environmental uncertainty, marine reserves, mean-variance trade-off, open systems

Trade-offs between growth and mortality and the maintenance of individual variation in growth.
Marc Mangel & Judy Stamps — 2001(5) (msmangel@cats.ucsc.edu)
Keywords: fitness, growth, individual variation, maturity, mortality, trade-offs.

Nothing has yet lasted forever: current and threatened levels of biological and cultural diversity.
Lisa L. Manne — 2003(4) (l.manne@nhm.ac.uk)
Keywords: biodiversity, cultural diversity, language diversity, threatened languages, threatened species

On the product mean fitness and population growth in sexual and asexual populations.
H. Manos, U. Liberman & Marcus W. Feldman — 2000(4) (marc@charles.stanford.edu)
Keywords: failure of optimality, global stability, multiple equilibria, population size, random environments

Positive correlation between density and parthenogenetic reproduction in oribatid mites (Acari) supports the structured resource theory of sexual reproduction.
Mark Maraun, Roy A. Norton, Roswitha B. Ehnes, Stefan Scheu & Georgia Erdmann — 2012(3) (mmaraun@gwdg.de)
Keywords: evolution of sex, Oribatida, parthenogenesis, structured resource theory of sexual reproduction

Effects of pond drying on morphological and life-history traits in the anuran Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae).
Marcela Márquez-García, Marjorie Correa-Solis, Michel Sallaberry-Ayerza & Marco A. Méndez-Torres — 2009(5) (mmendez@inta.cl)
Keywords: development time, hydroperiod, metamorphosis size, natural experiment, pond desiccation, Rhinella spinulosa

Spatial and temporal pattern of a pollinator-transmitted pathogen in a long-lived perennial, (Silene acaulis).
Deborah L. Marr & Lynda F. Delph — 2005(3) (dmarr@iusb.edu)
Keywords: Caryophyllaceae, Microbotryum violaceum, plant-fungus interactions, Silene acaulis, spatial autocorrelation, Ustilago violacea

Pre-mating mechanisms favouring or precluding speciation in a species complex: chemical recognition and sexual selection between types in the lizard Podarcis hispanica.
José Martín & Pilar López — 2006(4) ( Jose.Martin@mncn.csic.es)
Keywords: chemoreception, lizards, pre-mating isolation, sexual selection, speciation

Predation risk may explain the absence of nuptial coloration in the wall lizard, Podarcis muralis.
José Martín & Pilar López — 2001(8) (jose.martin@mncn.csic.es)
Keywords: costs of refuge use, lizards, nuptial coloration, Podarcis muralis, predation risk

Flower size preferences of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) foraging on Mimulus guttatus (Scrophulariaceae).
Noland H. Martin — 2004(5) (nm14@txstate.edu)
Keywords: Apis mellifera, flower size, Mimulus guttatus, pollination biology, pollinator choice

Floral preference, flower constancy, and pollen transfer efficiency of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in mixed arrays of Iris nelsonii and Iris fulva.
Noland H. Martin & Sunni J. Taylor — 2013(7) (noland.martin@txstate.edu)
Keywords: pollinator isolation, floral isolation, mechanical isolation, ethological isolation, pollinator preference, homoploid hybrid speciation

Male age, mating probability and mating costs in the fly Sepsis cynipsea.
Oliver Y. Martin, Rahel R. Leugger, Nadja Zeltner & David J. Hosken — 2003(1) (hosken@zoolmus.unizh.ch)
Keywords: conflict, fecundity, fertility, fitness, sexual selection, survival

Cohesion and survivorship of a rodent community during the past 4 million years in southwestern Kansas.
R. A. Martin and K. B. Fairbanks — 1999(1)  
Keywords: carnivore, community similarity, extinction, immigration, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Quaternary, Red Queen, survivorship

The relative roles of genes and rearing environment on the spatial cognitive ability of two sympatric species of threespine stickleback .
Jonatan Martinez, Jason Keagy, Benjamin Wurst, William Fetzner & Janette W. Boughman — 2016(4) (keagy@msu.edu)
Keywords: cognitive evolution, common garden, genetic basis, phenotypic plasticity, spatial learning, threespine stickleback

Adaptive radiation in a fluctuating environment: disturbance affects the evolution of diversity in a bacterial microcosm.
Nirmala Massin & Andrew Gonzalez — 2006(3) (nirmala.massin@ens.fr)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, autocorrelation, disturbance, diversification, microbial microcosm, Pseudomonas fluorescens, species richness

An evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) model for the mixed production of cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers in a facultative cleistogamous plant.
Michiko Masuda, Tetsukazu Yahara & Masayuki Maki — 2001(4) (masuda@dpc.ehime-u.ac.jp)  
Keywords: chasmogamy, evolutionarily stable strategy, facultative cleistogamy, geitonogamy, resource allocation model, seasonal variation

Why are equally-sized gametes so rare? The instability of isogamy and the cost of anisogamy. 
Hiroyuki Matsuda & Peter A. Abrams — 1999(7) (matsuda@ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp
Keywords: anisogamy, convergence stability, cost of sex, dimorphism, evolutionary stability, isogamy, mathematical model

Male-biased reproductive effort in a long-lived seabird.
Robert A. Mauck, Jennifer L. Zangmeister, Jack C. Cerchiara, Charles E. Huntington & Mark F. Haussmann — 2011(1) (mauckr@kenyon.edu)
Keywords: life-history trade-offs, parental effort, ptilochronology, sex-specific reproductive effort

Similarities in body size distributions of small-bodied flying vertebrates.
Brian A. Maurer, John Alroy, James H. Brown, Tamar Dayan, Brian J. Enquist, S.K. Morgan Ernest, Elizabeth A. Hadly, John P. Haskell, David Jablonski, Kate E. Jones, Dawn M. Kaufman, S. Kathleen Lyons, Karl J. Niklas, Warren P. Porter, Kaustuv Roy, Felisa A. Smith, Bruce Tiffney & Michael R. Willig — 2004(6) (maurerb@msu.edu)
Keywords: Aves, bats, diversification of body size, functional symmetry, hummingbirds, insectivores, Mammalia, perching birds, phylogenetic symmetry, rodents, swifts

Do elevational range size, abundance, and body size patterns mirror those documented for geographic ranges? A case study using Costa Rican rodents.
Christy M. McCain — 2006(3) (mccain@nceas.ucsb.edu)
Keywords: abundance, body size, Costa Rica, elevation, mammals, range size, rodents

Organismal size, metabolism and the evolution of complexity in metazoans.
Megan C. McCarthy & Brian J. Enquist — 2005(5) (mccarth1@email.arizona.edu)
Keywords: allometry, evolutionary trends, macroevolution, multicellularity, number of cell types, organismal energetics

Relatedness of mates influences mating behaviour and reproductive success of the hermaphroditic freshwater snail Physa gyrina.
Thomas M. McCarthy & Andrew Sih — 2008(1) (tmccarthy@utica.edu)
Keywords: behavioural dynamics, fitness, gender role, mating system, relatedness, snail

Predator induction of spine length in larval Leucorrhinia intacta (Odonata).
Shannon J. McCauley, Christopher J. Davis & Earl E. Werner — 2008(3) (sjmccauley@ucdavis.edu)
Keywords: habitat distribution, Leucorrhinia, phenotypic plasticity, predator-prey interactions

The role of local-scale processes on terrestrial and deep-sea gastropod body size distributions across multiple scales.
Craig R. McClain & Jeffrey C. Nekola — 2008(1) (cmcclain@mbari.org)
Keywords: biodiversity, body size spectrum, community structure, macroecology, mollusc, productivity, scale dependency

Local adaptation of an ectoparasite Ixodes uriae to its seabird host.
Karen D. McCoy, Thierry Boulinier, Solveig Schjorring & Yannis Michalakis — 2002(3) (kmccoy@snv.jussieu.fr)
Keywords: co-evolution, host-parasite interactions, Ixodes uriae, Rissa tridactyla, tick, virulence

The somatic cost of reproduction: What determines reproductive effort in prime-aged fallow bucks?
Alan G. McElligott, Favel Naulty, William V. Clarke & Thomas J. Hayden — 2003(8) (amcellig@zool.unizh.ch)
Keywords: Dama dama, life history, mass loss, mating strategy-effort hypothesis, mating success, terminal investment

Field-measured heritability of the threshold for sex determination in a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination.
Suzanne E. McGaugh, Rachel M. Bowden, Chih-Horng Kuo & Fredric J. Janzen — 2011(1) (suzanne.mcgaugh@duke.edu)
Keywords: animal model, Chrysemys picta, quantitative genetics, reptiles, temperature-dependent sex determination

Pleiotropic interactions involving virulence and replication rate in experimentally evolved vesicular stomatitis virus.
Lindsey W. McGee & Susanna K. Remold — 2013(5) (lewill08@gmail.com)
Keywords: generalism, host range, oncolytic virus, specialism, vesicular stomatitis virus

A unified theory for macroecology based on spatial patterns of abundance.
Brian McGill & Cathy Collins — 2003(4) (mail@brianmcgill.org)
Keywords: macroecology, species abundance distribution, species-area relationship, species range, unified theory

An allometric vision and motion model to predict prey encounter rates.
Brian McGill & Gary G. Mittelbach — 2006(4) (mail@brianmcgill.org)
Keywords: allometry, encounter rates, optimal foraging

Sex differences in carotenoid status and immune performance in zebra finches.
Kevin J. McGraw & Daniel R. Ardia — 2005(2) (Kevin.McGraw@asu.edu)
Keywords: carotenoids, immunocompetence, sex differences in immunity, sexual selection, Taeniopygia guttata

Sexual selection and extinction: The fate of plumage-dimorphic and plumage-monomorphic birds introduced onto islands. 
D. K. McLain, M. P. Moulton & J. G. Sanderson — 1999(5)  
Keywords: community structure, extinction, introduced birds, islands, sexual selection

Impacts of global warming, habitat loss and homogenization on global biodiversity.
Michael L. McKinney — 2014(3) (mmckinne@utk.edu)Keywords: biodiversity, global warming, habitat loss, homogenization

Species-time curves and population extremes: Ecological patterns in the fossil record. 
Mike McKinney & Daniel L. Frederick — 1999(6) (mmckinne@utkux.utcc.utk.edu
Keywords: fossil, population, species-area, species-time

A classification of dynamic optimization problems in fluctuating environments.
John McNamara — 2000(4) (john.mcnamara@bristol.ac.uk)
Keywords: allocation, dynamic programming, geometric mean fitness, growth, state dependence

Why do mosses have height? Moss production as a tragedy of the commons game.
Gordon G. McNickle, Cory Wallace & Jennifer L. Baltzer — 2016(1) (gmcnickle@purdue.edu)
Keywords: evolutionarily stable strategy, evolutionary game theory, moss, peatlands, tragedy of the commons.

Evolutionarily stable strategies for nutrient foraging and below-ground competition in plants.
Gordon G. McNickle & Joel S. Brown — 2012(6) (mcnickle@uic.edu,)
Keywords: asymmetric game, best response curve, evolutionarily stable strategies, evolutionary game theory, interspecific competition, plant–plant competition, root games

Flight morphology variation in a damselfly with female-limited polymorphism.
Emily Jane McTavish, Genevičve K. Smith, Rafael F. Guerrero & Eben J. Gering — 2012(3) (ejmctavish@utexas.edu)
Keywords: female-limited polymorphism, flight morphology, Ischnura ramburii, male mimicry, Rambur’s forktail

Bergmann's rule and the terrestrial caecilian Schistometopum thomense (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae).
G. John Measey & Stefan Van Dongen — 2006(6) (john@measey.com)
Keywords: altitude, Bergmann's rule, burrowing, Gymnophiona

Individual flower demography, floral phenology, and floral display size in Silene latifolia.
Thomas R. Meagher & Lynda F. Delph — 2001(7) (trm3@st-and.ac.uk)
Keywords: demography, exponential growth, floral longevity, logistic growth, phenology, resource allocation, Silene latifolia

Adaptive diversity in heterogeneous environments for populations regulated by a mixture of soft and hard selection.
T. de Meeűs & J. Goudet — 2000(8) (demeeus@cepm.mpl.ird.fr)  
Keywords: adaptive polymorphism, co-existence, density dependence, hard selection, heterogeneous environments, invasive ESS, population regulation, soft selection

Social versus genetic measures of reproductive success in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka.
Ladan Mehranvar, Michael Healey, Anthony Farrell & Scott Hinch — 2004(8) (ladan@zoology.ubc.ca)
Keywords: consort, dominance, genetic mating success, life span, partners, sockeye salmon, social mating success

Effect of predation on prey abundance and survival in Plio-Pleistocene mammalian communities.
Carlo Meloro, Pasquale Raia & Carmela Barbera — 2007(3) (carlo.meloro@unina.it)
Keywords: Italian Quaternary, large carnivores, large herbivores, occupancy, predator-prey

Ecological patterns in the trophic-size structure of large mammal communities: a 'taxon-free' characterization.
Manuel Mendoza, Christine M. Janis & Paul Palmqvist — 2005(4) (paul.palmqvist@uma.es)
Keywords: complex patterns, discriminant analysis, evolutionary paleoecology, mammal communities, paleosynecological reconstruction, taxon-free characterization, trophic structure, Venta Micena

Heads or tails? Variation in tadpole body proportions in response to temperature and food stress.
Juha Merilä, Anssi Laurila, Ane T. Laugen & Katja Räsänen — 2004(5) (juha.merila@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: adaptation, growth, latitude, Rana temporaria, tail length, thermal optima

Introduction to Niche Theory and Speciation
Géza Meszéna (geza.meszena@elte.hu) & Andrew P. Hendry— 2012(4) (andrew.hendry@mcgill.ca)

Seasonal variation in catch-up growth reveals state-dependent somatic allocations in salmon.
Neil B. Metcalfe, Colin D. Bull & Marc Mangel — 2002(6) (msmangel@cats.ucsc.edu)
Keywords: Atlantic salmon, body size, fat reserves, growth, Salmo salar

A different model to explain delayed germination.
J.A.J.(Hans) Metz, Peter G.L. Klinkhamer and Tom J. de Jong — 2009(2) (j.a.j.metz@biology.leidenuniv.nl)
Keywords: delayed germination, Levins? fitness set, life stages, optimization principle

When does evolution optimize?
J.A.J.(Hans) Metz, S.D. Mylius & O. Diekmann — 2008(5) (J.A.J.Metz@biology.leidenuniv.nl)
Keywords: eco-evolutionary feedback, environmental dimension, evolutionary optimization, invasion fitness, life-history theory, r-optimization, R0-optimization

Even in the odd cases when evolution optimizes, unrelated population dynamical details may shine through in the ESS.
J.A.J.(Hans) Metz, S.D. Mylius & O. Diekmann — 2008(5) (J.A.J.Metz@biology.leidenuniv.nl)
Keywords: eco-evolutionary feedback, evolutionary optimization, life-history theory, maturation age

Number of MHC alleles is related to parasite loads in natural populations of yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis.
Yvonne Meyer-Lucht & Simone Sommer — 2009(7) (sommer@izw-berlin.de)Keywords: Apodemus flavicollis, gastrointestinal nematodes, genetic variability, major histocompatibility complex, microsatellites, Muridae

Trophically mediated divergence of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) populations in contemporary time.
Wendy K Michaud, Michael Power, & Michael T Kinnison — 2008(7) (wmichaud@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca)
Keywords: contemporary rapid evolution, geometric morphometrics, ontogenic shift, rate of divergence, resource polymorphism, trophic specialization, stable isotopes

Environment-dependent trade-offs and phenotypic plasticity in metamorphic timing.
Hirofumi Michimae, Ayumi Tezuka, Takeshi Emura & Osamu Kishida — 2014(7) ( michimaeh@pharm.kitasato-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: competing risk, Cox proportional hazards model, metamorphosis, survival analysis

Scatter-hoarding of Cape Proteaceae nuts by rodents.
Jeremy Midgley, Bruce Anderson, Adele Bok & Trish Fleming — 2002(4) (MidgleyJ@Botzoo.uct.ac.za)
Keywords: Cape Mediterranean shrublands, myrmecochory, rodents, scatter-hoarding, seed dispersal, serotiny

Why were dinosaurs so large? A food quality hypothesis.
Jeremy J. Midgley, G. Midgley & William J. Bond — 2002(7) (midgleyj@botzoo.uct.ac.za)
Keywords: carbon dioxide, nutrients, sauropods

Does interspecific territoriality reflect the intensity of ecological interactions? A theoretical model for interspecific territoriality.
Osamu K. Mikami & Masakado Kawata — 2004(5) (omikascb@mbox.nc.kyushu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: ecological interaction, foraging theory, theoretical model, interspecific competition, interspecific territoriality, optimal behaviour, species co-existence

Multiple links between species diversity and temporal stability in bird communities across North America.
Gregory M. Mikkelson, Brian J. McGill, Sebastien Beaulieu & Patrick L. Beukema — 2011(4) (gregory.mikkelson@mcgill.ca)
Keywords: biodiversity, community stability, covariance effect, diminishing returns, over-yielding, population stability, portfolio effect, species evenness, species interactions, species richness, Taylor’s Law, temporal stability

Benefits of morphological defence demonstrated by direct manipulation in larval dragonflies.
Dirk Johannes Mikolajewski & Jens Rolff — 2004(4) (d.mikolajewski@tu-bs.de)
Keywords: benefits, inducible defence, morphological defence, plasticity, predator

The race goes to the swift: fitness consequences of variation in sprint performance in juvenile lizards.
Donald B. Miles — 2004(1) (dmiles2@ohio.edu)
Keywords: body size, fitness, lizard, locomotor performance, survivorship, Urosaurus ornatus

Intrapopulational variation in endurance of Galápagos lava lizards Microlophus albemarlensis: Evidence for an interaction between natural and sexual selection.
Donald B. Miles, Howard L. Snell & Heidi M. Snell — 2001(7) (dmiles2@ohiou.edu)
Keywords: endurance capacity, Galápagos, individual variation, lizard, Microlophus albemarlensis, natural selection, predation, sexual selection

Sex ratio and brood size in a monophagous outcrossing gall aphid, Tamalia coweni (Homoptera: Aphididae).
Donald G. Miller III & Leticia Avilés — 2000(6) (dmiller@trinity.edu)
Keywords: brood size, gall aphid, sex allocation, sex ratio, Tamalia coweni

Social correlates of reproductive success in false-clown anemonefish: subordinate group members do not pay-to-stay.
Jeremy S. Mitchell — 2003(1) (jmitchel@sfu.ca)
Keywords: Amphiprion, cooperative breeding, queue, reproductive success, social organization

Limits to species richness in a continuum of habitat heterogeneity: an ESS approach. 
Wm. A. Mitchell — 2000(3) (lsmitch@scifac.indstate.edu)
Keywords: co-evolution, evolutionarily stable strategy, habitat selection, species richness, travel cost

Variation in feeding morphology between pumpkinseed populations: phenotypic plasticity or evolution?
G. Mittelbach, C. W. Osenberg, and P. C. Wainwright — 1999(1)  
Keywords: common-garden experiments, Lepomis, Michigan, phenotypic plasticity, sunfish, trophic morphology

Chaotic population dynamics and the evolution of ageing.
Joshua Mitteldorf — 2006(3) (josh@mathforum.org)
Keywords: ageing, altruism, chaos, group selection, population dynamics, senescence

Ageing selected for its own sake.
Joshua Mitteldorf — 2004(7) (josh@mathforum.org)
Keywords: aging, group selection, hormesis, senescence

Spatial niche packing, character displacement and adaptive speciation in an environmental gradient.
Ferenc Mizera & Géza Meszéna — 2003(3) (mizera@colbud.hu)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, adaptive speciation, character displacement, environmental gradient, spatial niche packing

No evidence that stickleback spines directly increase risk of predation by an invertebrate predator.
Kenyon B. Mobley, Rocio Colas Ruiz, Frank Johansson, Göran Englund & Folmer Bokma — 2013(2) (mobley@evolbio.mpg.de)
Keywords: Aeshna, dragonfly larvae, Pungitius, morphological defence, predation, prey capture, stickleback

Olfactory perception of mates in ecologically divergent sticklebacks: population parallels and differences.
Robert B. Mobley, Marquita L. Tillotson & Janette W. Boughman — 2016(4) (mobleyro@msu.edu)
Keywords: Gasterosteus aculeatus, mate choice, olfaction, parallel evolution, threespine stickleback

Threshold evolution in exotic populations of a polyphenic beetle.
Armin P. Moczek, John Hunt, Douglas J. Emlen & Leigh W. Simmons — 2002(4) (armin@duke.edu)
Keywords: adaptive phenotypic plasticity, alternative tactics, developmental threshold, exotic species, horn polyphenism, Onthophagus, status-dependent selection, threshold evolution

Habitat-mediated shifts and plasticity in the evaporative water loss rates of two congeneric pit vipers (Squamata, Viperidae, Agkistrodon).
Daniel S. Moen, Christopher T. Winne & Robert N. Reed — 2005(5) (dmoen@life.bio.sunysb.edu)
Keywords: habitat aridity, habitat transition, phylogeny, semi-aquatic, snakes

Antler growth and extinction of Irish elk. 
R. Moen, J. Pastor, & Y. Cohen — 1999(2)  
Keywords: antlers, Cervidae, energetics, Irish elk, Megaloceros giganteus, metabolism, mineral nutrition, nutrient requirements, simulation model

Using native and invasive populations as surrogate 'species' to predict the potential for native and invasive populations to shift their range.
Jane Molofsky & Alexandra R. Collins — 2014(6) (Jane.Molofsky@uvm.edu)
Keywords: genetic variance, invasive plants, Phalaris arundinacea, range margin

Both selection and gene flow are necessary to explain adaptive divergence: evidence from clinal variation in stream stickleback.
Jean-Sébastien Moore & Andrew P. Hendry — 2005(6) (andrew.hendry@mcgill.ca)
Keywords: constraints, dispersal, divergent selection, ecological speciation, hybrid zones, migration, parallel evolution

Body size-density relationships and species diversity in parasitic nematodes: patterns and likely processes.
Serge Morand & R. Poulin — 2002(7) (morand@univ-perp.fr)
Keywords: abundance, body size, energetic equivalence rule, model, nematode

Evidence for a cryptic species complex in the ant parasitoid Apocephalus paraponerae (Diptera: Phoridae).
Shellee Morehead, Jon Seger, Donald H. Feener, Jr. & Brian V. Brown — 2001(3) (smorehea@bucknell.edu)  
Keywords: ants, Apocephalus, cryptic species, Ectatomma, host location, parasitoids, phorids, Paraponera

The relationship between population means and variances in reproductive success: implications of life history and ecology.
Juan Moreno, Vicente Polo, Juan J. Sanz, Ana de León, Eduardo Mínguez & José P. Veiga — 2003(8) (jmoreno@mncn.csic.es )
Keywords: life history, long-term studies, mean reproductive success, parental quality, variance in reproductive success

Optimal foraging and information gathering: how should animals invest in repeated foraging bouts within the same patch?
Yoshihisa Mori & Kensuke Nakata — 2008(6) (moripe@ntu.ac.jp)
Keywords: environmental uncertainty, information gathering, optimal foraging, patch use, repeated foraging

On strategies of plant behaviour: evolutionary games of habitat selection, defence, and foraging.
Douglas W. Morris, Per Lundberg & Joel S. Brown — 2016(5) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: adaptive landscape, defence, evolutionarily stable strategies, evolutionary game theory, habitat selection, height in trees, nutrient foraging, Tragedy of the Commons

Can foraging behaviour reveal the eco-evolutionary dynamics of habitat selection?
Douglas W. Morris — 2014(1) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: adaptive landscape, evolutionarily stable strategy, fitness, foraging behaviour, habitat selection, harvest rate, meadow vole, patch residence time.

Apparent predation risk: tests of habitat selection theory reveal unexpected effects of competition.
Douglas W. Morris — 2009(2) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: apparent competition, density dependence, habitat, habitat selection, optimal foraging, predation risk, vole

Has the ghost of competition passed?
Douglas W. Morris — 1999(1) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: co-existence, competition, ghost of competition, habitat selection, isocline, isodar, isoleg

Competitive tragedies, habitat selection, and extinction (or not?)
Douglas W. Morris, Joshua G. Cronmiller & Erika Garcez Da Rocha — 2016(6) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: adaptation, extinction, foraging behaviour, habitat selection, Microtus pennsylvanicus, patch use, Tragedy of the Commons.

Measuring the ghost of competition: insights from density-dependent habitat selection on the coexistence and dynamics of lemmings.
Douglas W. Morris, Douglas L. Davidson & Charles J. Krebs — 2000(1) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: Arctic, co-existence, competition, density dependence, ghost of competition, habitat selection, isocline, isodar, isoleg, lemming

Climate-induced habitat selection predicts future evolutionary strategies of lemmings.
Douglas W. Morris, Angélique Dupuch & William D. Halliday — 2012(6) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: Arctic, climate change, competition, Dicrostonyx, evolutionarily stable strategies, isodar, Lemmus, path analysis, tundra

Predicting future threats to biodiversity from habitat selection by humans.
Douglas W. Morris & Steven R. Kingston — 2002(6) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: Africa, biodiversity, birds, conservation, energy, isodar, habitat selection, mammals, urbanization

Respect for property rights: when does it pay to defend territory?
Douglas W. Morris & Jody T. MacEachern — 2013(7) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: co-existence, evolutionary game, habitat selection, ideal despotic distribution, ideal pre-emptive distribution, mixed strategies, territory

Sexual conflict over habitat selection: the game and a test with small mammals.
Douglas W. Morris & Jody T. MacEachern — 2010(4) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: fitness, habitat selection, isodar, matrix games, sex ratio, sexual conflict, voles

Simulated and human metapopulations created by habitat selection.
Douglas W. Morris & Shomen Mukherjee — 2006(7) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: Canada, fitness, habitat selection, Homo sapiens, ideal-free distribution, metapopulation

On the adaptive evolution of extinction: Introduction
Douglas Morris & Per Lundberg — 2016(6) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)

Greener on the other side of the fence: density-dependent habitat selection by a unicellular alga.
MaryJane M. Moses, Douglas W. Morris & Wensheng Qin — 2013(7) (douglas.morris@lakeheadu.ca)
Keywords: algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, density, dispersal, fitness, habitat choice, ideal free distribution, phototaxis, signal detection

Propagule size and patterns of success in early introductions of chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) to Nevada.
Michael P. Moulton & Wendell P. Cropper, Jr. — 2016(5) (moultonm@ufl.edu)
Keywords: Alectoris chukar, exotic birds, propagule pressure, species introductions

Sexual selection and the fate of introduced pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae).
Michael P. Moulton, D.K. McLain & Linda E. Moulton — 2009(6) (moultonm@ufl.edu)
Keywords: Columbidae, introduced birds, sexual selection

Patterns of success in galliform (Aves: Galliformes) introductions to the Hawaiian Islands and New Zealand.
Michael P. Moulton, James G. Sanderson & Ronald F. Labisky — 2001(5) (moultonm@wec.ufl.edu)
Keywords: competition, game birds, introductions, morphological over-dispersion, oceanic islands.

Conservation of threatened local gene pools: landscape genetics of the Italian roe deer (Capreolus c. italicus) populations.
Nadia Mucci, Federica Mattucci & Ettore Randi — 2012(7) (nadia.mucci@isprambiente.it)
Keywords: Bayesian clustering, Capreolus capreolus italicus, conservation genetics, genetic admixture and introgression, Italian roe deer, landscape genetics

Correlates of speciation and extinction rates in the Carnivora.
Joao Muńoz — 2002(7) (jmunoz@protos.lifesci.ucla.edu)
Keywords: Allee effect, Carnivora, competition, extinction, reproductive suppression, sociality, speciation

Relating species rarity to life history in plants of eastern Australia.
Brad R. Murray, Peter H. Thrall & Brendan J. Lepschi — 2002(7) (Brad.Murray@uts.edu.au)
Keywords: evolutionary divergence correlation, geographical range size, phylogenetic regression, threat of extinction

Properties of species in the tail of rank-abundance curves: The potential for increase in abundance.
Brad R. Murray & Mark Westoby — 2000(5) (b.murray@pi.csiro.au)
Keywords: everywhere-sparse, geographical range, macroecology, neighbourhood structure, rank-abundance curve, seed output, somewhere-abundant

The emergence of primary strategies in evolving virtual-plant populations.
Matthew J. Mustard, Dominic B. Standing, Matthew J. Aitkenhead, David Robinson & Jim A.J.S. McDonald — 2003(7) (m.mustard@rbgkew.org.uk )
Keywords: evolutionary computation, individual based model, mutable single plant model, plant strategies, primary strategies

Selection on mite engorgement size affects mite spacing, host damselfly flight and resistance.
Laura Nagel, M. Zanuttig & M. R. Forbes — 2010(5) (lnagel@connect.carleton.ca)
Keywords: costs of parasitism, parasite engorgement, pond permanence, resistance

The evolution of altruism by costly punishment in lattice-structured populations: score-dependent viability versus score-dependent fertility.
Mayuko Nakamaru & Yoh Iwasa — 2005(6) (nakamaru@valdes.titech.ac.jp)
Keywords: altruism, lattice, punishment, score-dependent fertility, score-dependent viability

Evolution of rumors that discriminate lying defectors.
Mayuko Nakamaru & Masakado Kawata — 2004(2) (nakamaru@sys.eng.shizuoka.ac.jp)
Keywords: honest signalling, language, lying cheater, Prisoner's Dilemma game, punishment, rumour

Metabolic scope of fish species increases with distributional range.
Daniel E. Naya & Francisco Bozinovic — 2012(6) (dnaya@fcien.edu.uy)
Keywords: climatic variability hypothesis, macrophysiology, metabolic rate, phenotypic plasticity, physiological flexibility

Exploring the functional association between physiological plasticity, climatic variability, and geographical latitude: lessons from land snails.
Daniel E. Naya, Tamara Catalán, Paulina Artacho, Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia & Roberto F. Nespolo — 2011(6) (dnaya@fcien.edu.uy)
Keywords: climatic variability hypothesis, Cornu aspersum, digestive flexibility, macrophysiology, metabolic rate, phenotypic plasticity

Phenotypic plasticity in laboratory mice and rats: a meta-analysis of current ideas on gut size flexibility.
Daniel E. Naya, William H. Karasov & Francisco Bozinovic — 2007(8) (dnaya@bio.puc.cl)
Keywords: digestive physiology, Mus musculus, phenotypic flexibility, Rattus norvegicus

Understanding the concepts of community phylogenetics.
Charlotte Ndiribe, Nicolas Salamin & Antoine Guisan — 2013(8) (Charlotte.Ndiribe@unil.ch)
Keywords: community assembly, community phylogenetics, niche conservatism, trait evolution

The evolution of sexual bill-size dimorphism in shorebirds: a morphometric test of the resource partitioning hypothesis.
Silke Nebel & Graham J. Thompson — 2011(1) (snebel2@uwo.ca)
Keywords: bird migration, resource partitioning hypothesis, sexual bill-size dimorphism, sexual selection, shorebirds

Sexual selection on locomotor performance in the calanoid copepod Tigriopus californicus.
Roberto F. Nespolo, Rodrigo A. Scheihing & Paulina Artacho — 2013(5) (robertonespolorossi@gmail.com)
Keywords: copepods, correlational selection, fitness, locomotor performance

A general model for mass—growth—density relations across tree-dominated communities.
Karl J. Niklas, Jeremy J. Midgley & Brian J. Enquist — 2003(3) (kjn2@cornell.edu)
Keywords: allometry, plant reproduction, scaling, self-thinning, trees

An allometric model for seed plant reproduction.
Karl J.Niklas & Brian J.Enquist — 2003(1) (kjn2@cornell.edu)
Keywords: allometry, plants, reproductive biomass, scaling, vegetative biomass

Inducible plasticity: optimal waiting time for the development of an inducible phenotype.
Kinya Nishimura — 2006(3) (kinya@fish.hokudai.ac.jp)
Keywords: cost, delay time, inducible defences, inducible plasticity, waiting time

Immunocompetence is signalled by ornamental colour in king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus.
Paul M. Nolan, F. Stephen Dobson, Birgitta Dresp & Pierre Jouventin — 2006(7) (paul.nolan@citadel.edu)
Keywords: Aptenodytes patagonicus, condition-dependent signal, immunocompetence, PHA, phytohaemagglutinin, sexual selection

Certainty versus stochasticity: Cell replication biases DNA movement from endosymbionts and organelles into nuclei.
Peter Nonacs & Sarah J. Tolley — 2014(3) (pnonacs@biology.ucla.edu)
Keywords: endosymbiont, horizontal gene transfer, intergenomic conflict, mitochondria, Wolbachia

Behavioural and physiological responses to food availability and predation risk.
Erik G. Noonburg & Roger M. Nisbet — 2005(1) (noonburg@math.ualberta.ca)
Keywords: age at maturity, Chironomidae, foraging activity, growth curve, life history, optimization, resource allocation, size at maturity

Dimensionality of sexual isolation during reinforcement and ecological speciation in Timema cristinae stick insects.
Patrik Nosil & Paul Hohenlohe — 2012(4) (patrik.nosil@colorado.edu)
Keywords: mate choice, natural selection, niche dimensionality, reproductive isolation, sexual selection

Climate affects geographic variation in host-plant but not mating preferences of Timema cristinae stick-insect populations.
Patrik Nosil, Rüdiger Riesch & Moritz Muschick 2013(6) (p.nosil@sheffield.ac.uk)
Keywords: climate, gene flow, genomic divergence, host-plant adaptation, reinforcement, speciation, temperature

Microsatellite variability of Drosophila subobscura populations from the central Balkans.
Zorana Kurbalija Novičič, Mihailo Jelic, Milos Jovanovic, Danica Dimitrijevic, Marija Savic Veselinovic, Marina Stamenkovic-Radak & Marko Andjelkovic — 2011(5) (kurbalija@ibiss.bg.ac.rs)
Keywords: adaptive evolution, chromosomal inversions, genetic diversity, microhabitats

Conservation Biology: the need for multidisciplinary approaches.
Zorana Kurbalija Novičič, Cino Pertoldi, Ettore Randi, Torsten Nygård Kristensen, Mauro Santos, Vesna Milankov, Marina Stamenković Radak & Marko Andjelković — 2012(7) (kurbalija@ibiss.bg.ac.rs)

Genetic divergence among mexican populations of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle): geographic and historic effects.
Juan Núńez-Farfán, César A. Domínguez, Luis E. Eguiarte, Amelia Cornejo, Martin Quijano, Jesús Vargas & Rodolfo Dirzo — 2002(7) (farfan@servidor.unam.mx )
Keywords: genetic drift, isolation by distance, mangroves, Mexico, Panamanian Isthmus, population genetics, red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle

Natural selection in Potentilla glandulosa revisited.
Juan Núńez-Farfán & Carl D. Schlichting — 2005(1) (farfan@servidor.unam.mx)
Keywords: adaptation, ecological genetics, local adaptation, natural selection, population differentiation, Potentilla glandulosa, reaction norms

Spleen size, disease risk and sexual selection: a comparative study in primates.
Charles L. Nunn — 2002(1) (cnunn@ucdavis.edu)
Keywords: comparative study, disease risk, immune system, phylogeny, primates, sexual selection, spleen

Differentiation in reproductive strategy between sexual and asexual populations of Antennaria parlinii (Asteraceae).
Lisa M. O'Connell & Christopher G. Eckert — 2001(3) (eckertc@biology.queensu.ca)  
Keywords: anemochory, apomixis, asexuality, habitat disturbance, plant reproduction, pussytoes, reproductive effort, seed dispersal, sex

Facilitation between bovids and equids on an African savanna.
Wilfred O. Odadi, Meha Jain, Sipke E. Van Wieren, Herbert H. T. Prins & Daniel I. Rubenstein — 2011(3) (woodadi@yahoo.com)
Keywords: bite rate, bovids, cattle, competition, crude protein, digestible organic matter, donkeys, equids, facilitation, gastrointestinal parasites, grazing strategies, grazing succession, mutualism, weight gain, zebras

Phenotypic plasticity and inbreeding depression in Mimulus ringens (Phrymaceae).
Lydia R. O'Halloran & David E. Carr — 2010(5) (riesl@science.oregonstate.edu)
Keywords: inbreeding, Mimulus ringens, mixed-mating, phenotypic plasticity, water stress

Physiological specialization by thermal adaptation drives ecological divergence in a sympatric fish species pair.
Jan Ohlberger, Georg Staaks, Thomas Petzoldt, Thomas Mehner & Franz Hölker — 2008(8) (Ohlberger@igb-berlin.de)
Keywords: Coregonus spp., divergence, sympatric species, temperature preference

Diet affects the immune defence and life history traits of an arctiid moth Parasemia plantaginis.
Katja Ojala, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Leena Lindström & Johanna Mappes — 2005(8) (katojala@cc.jyu.fi)
Keywords: antioxidant, encapsulation, genotype-environment interaction, immunocompetence, parasitoid resistance, phenolics

Arctic lemmings, Lemmus spp. and Dicrostonyx spp.; integrating ecological and evolutionary perspectives.
Tarja Oksanen, Lauri Oksanen, Jonas Dahlgren & Johan Olofsson — 2008(3) (tarja.oksanen@utu.fi)
Keywords: Arctic, Dicrostonyx, herbivory, Lemmus, outbreaks, population cycles, time trajectories, vegetation

• Arctic lemmings are not simply food limited — a comment on Oksanen et al.
Gilles Gauthier, Dominique Berteaux, Charles J. Krebs & Donald Reid — 2009(3)

• On the implications of currently available data on population fluctuations of arctic lemmings — reply to Gauthier et al.
Tarja Oksanen, Lauri Oksanen, Jonas Dahlgren, Johan Olofsson & Kukka Kyrö — 2009(3)

Impact of marine-subsidized predators on lemming-plant oscillations.
Tarja Oksanen, Lauri Oksanen, Gunnar Söderbacka, Katrine Hoset, Lise Ruffino & Maria Tuomi — 2013(1) (tarja.oksanen@utu.fi)
Keywords: arctic, herbivory, lemming, oscillations, population cycles, predation, tundra, vegetation

Fitness consequences of delayed maturity in female wood ducks.
Madan K. Oli, Gary R. Hepp & Robert A. Kennamer — 2002(4) (olim@wec.ufl.edu)
Keywords: age at maturity, Aix sponsa, cost of reproduction, demography, fitness, individual fitness, life-history evolution, life-history trade-offs, lifetime reproductive success, wood duck

The twofold cost of sex unfolded.
Helen Olofsson & Per Lundberg — 2007(7) (helen.olofsson@unc.edu)
Keywords: co-existence, evolution of sex, invasion, life history, population dynamics

Habitat structure, feeding mode and morphological reversibility: factors influencing phenotypic plasticity in perch.
Jens Olsson & P. Eklöv — 2005(8) (Jens.Olsson@ebc.uu.se)
Keywords: feeding mode, geometric morphometrics, habitat structure, morphological reversibility, phenotypic plasticity, trophic polymorphism

Thermal environment, survival, and local adaptation in the common frog, Rana temporaria.
Mats Olsson & Tobias Uller — 2003(3) (mats.olsson@zool.gu.se)
Keywords: local adaptation, Rana temporaria, survival, temperature

Selection on space use in a polymorphic lizard.
Mats Olsson, Erik Wapstra, Mo Healey, Tonia Schwartz & Tobias Uller — 2008(4) (molsson@uow.edu.au)
Keywords: lizard, polymorphism, selection in the wild

Gain curves in depletable food patches: a test of five models with European starlings.
Ola Olsson, Joel S. Brown & Henrik G. Smith — 2001(3) (starling@uic.edu)  
Keywords: European starling, foraging, gain function, giving-up density, Sturnus vulgaris

Spatial competition and the dynamics of rarity in a temporally varying environment.
Lauren O'Malley, G. Korniss, Sai Satya Praveen Mungara & Thomas Caraco — 2010(3) (caraco@albany.edu)
Keywords: ecological invasion, nucleation, population-dynamic timescale, spatial competition, stochastic resonance, temporal variation

Redesigning spider webs: Stickiness, capture area and the evolution of modern orb-webs. 
B. D. Opell — 1999(4)  
Keywords: adhesive thread, Araneidae, capture thread, cribellar thread, orb-web, thread stickiness, Tetragnathidae, Uloboridae

Changes in the mechanical properties of capture threads and the evolution of modern orb-weaving spiders.
Brent D. Opell & J.E. Bond — 2001(5) (bopell@vt.edu)
Keywords: adhesive thread, breaking energy, character evolution, cribellar thread, tensile strength, Young's modulus.

Genetic- and chemical-based resistance to two mammalian herbivores varies across the geographic range of Eucalyptus globulus.
Julianne M. O'Reilly-Wapstra, Joseph K. Bailey, Clare McArthur & Brad M. Potts — 2010(4) (joreilly@utas.edu.au)
Keywords: eucalypts, genetic basis, marsupials, plant secondary metabolites

Switching strategies, population dynamics, and mechanisms of coexistence in food webs with Jekyll-and-Hyde species.
Paul A. Orlando, Joel S. Brown, Howard E. Buhse, Jr. & Christopher J. Whelan — 2011(5) (porlan1@uic.edu)
Keywords: intra-guild predation, mechanism of co-existence, phenotypic switching, trophic polymorphism

Co-adaptations of feeding behaviours and gut modulation as a mechanism of co-existence.
Paul A. Orlando, Joel S. Brown & Christopher J. Whelan — 2009(4) (porlan1@uic.edu)
Keywords: consumer–resource game, generalist, G-function, gut modulation, opportunist, selective, specialist

Null models of North American prairie duck communities: local habitat conditions and temporal scale influence community patterns.
Erik E. Osnas & C. Davison Ankney — 2003(6) (eosnas@bio.indiana.edu)
Keywords: community structure, null model, randomization test, species co-existence, waterfowl

Relative contribution of evolutionary and ecological dynamics to body size and life-history changes of herring (Clupea harengus) in the Bothnian Sea.
Örjan Östman, Olle Karlsson, Jukka Pönni, Olavi Kaljuste, Teija Aho, Anna Gârdmark — 2014(5) (orjan.ostman@slu.se)
Keywords: Baltic Sea, density dependence, fisheries, grey seal, pelagic, zooplankton

Sexual ornamentation and parasite infection in males of common bream (Abramis brama): a reflection of immunocompetence status or simple cost of reproduction?
Eva Ottová, Andrea Šimková, Pavel Jurajda, Martina Dávidová, Markéta Ondračková, Martina Pečínková & Milan Gelnar — 2005(4) (simkova@sci.muni.cz)
Keywords: cost of reproduction, fish, immunocompetence, parasitism, sexual ornamentation

Food and environmental cues trigger an inducible offence.
Dianna K. Padilla — 2001(1) (padilla@life.bio.sunysb.edu)
Keywords: feeding morphology, inducible offence, inducible morphology, phenotypic plasticity

Bird-mediated selection on fruit display traits in Celtis ehrenbergiana (Cannabaceae).
Facundo Xavier Palacio, Mariela Lacoretz & Mariano Ordano — 2014(1) (facundo_palacio@yahoo.com.ar)
Keywords: co-evolution, maternal and offspring levels, mutualism, natural selection, phenotypic selection, plant-animal interactions, seed dispersal, selection gradients.

Is a jack-of-all-temperatures a master of none? An experimental test with Daphnia pulicaria (Crustacea: Cladocera).
Arnas Palaima & Ken Spitze — 2004(2) (apalaima@olemiss.edu )
Keywords: generalist, niche, specialist, temperature, tolerance, trade-off

Eco-evolutionary interactions between predators and prey: can predator-induced changes to prey communities feed back to shape predator foraging traits?
Eric P. Palkovacs & David M. Post — 2008(5) (eric.palkovacs@maine.edu)
Keywords: anole, island, lizard, locomotor performance, selection

Continuing the search for pattern among rare plants: are diploid species more likely to be rare?
M. K. Pandit — 2006(3) ( uspmkp@nus.edu.sg)
Keywords: diploidy, Indian subcontinent, invasiveness, plant species, polyploidy, rarity

Spatial learning ability of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in relation to inferred ecology and ancestry.
Peter J. Park — 2013(2) (peter.park@nyack.edu)
Keywords: cognitive map use, ecotypic variation, forebrain, genetics, hippocampus, phenotypic plasticity, telencephalon

Evidence of independent climatic selection for dessication and starvation tolerance in Indian tropical populations of Drosophila melanogaster.
Ravi Parkash & A.K. Munjal — 2000(5) (mdu@mdul.ernet.in)
Keywords: climatic selection, Drosophila melanogaster, opposite latitudinal climes, starvation and desiccation tolerance, tropical populations

Hybrid response to pathogen infection in interspecific crosses between two amphibian species (Anura: Ranidae).
Matthew J. Parris — 2004(3) (mparris@memphis.edu)
Keywords: amphibian, chytridiomycosis, disease, hybridization, larvae, pathogens, Rana

Hybridization in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex): Variation in interspecific hybrid larval fitness components along a natural contact zone.
Matthew J. Parris — 2001(1) (mparris@memphis.edu)
Keywords: amphibian larvae, endogenous selection, exogenous selection, fitness, geographic variation, hybridization, Rana

Evolution by natural selection to extinction.
Kalle Parvinen — 2016(6) (kalle.parvinen@utu.fi)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, evolutionary suicide, evolution to extinction, first-principles derivation, mechanistic modelling

Evolutionary suicide in a discrete-time metapopulation model.
Kalle Parvinen — 2007(4) (kalle.parvinen@utu.fi)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, Allee effect, dispersal, evolutionary suicide, migration, structured metapopulation

Disturbance-generated niche-segregation in a structured metapopulation model.
Kalle Parvinen & Géza Meszéna — 2009(4) (kalparvi@utu.fi)
Keywords: disturbance, diversity, metapopulation, niche

Habitat fragmentation, rapid evolution and population persistence.
Michael A. Patten, Donald H. Wolfe, Eyal Shochat & Steve K. Sherrod — 2005(2) (mpatten@ou.edu)
Keywords: fragmentation, lesser prairie-chicken, life-history evolution, trade-offs, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus

Increased survival during famine improves fitness of bacteria in a pulsed-resource environment.
Minna Pekkonen, Jenni Korhonen, and Jouni T. Laakso — 2011(1) (minna.pekkonen@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: competition, Novosphingobium capsulatum, population dynamics, Serratia marcescens, trade-offs

A new metric to calculate the opportunity for selection on quantitative characters.
Fanie Pelletier & Tim Coulson — 2012(6) (Fanie.Pelletier@usherbrooke.ca)
Keywords: fitness, opportunity for selection, population dynamics, survival, vertebrates

When boys want to be girls: effects of mating system and dispersal on parent-offspring sex ratio conflict.
Ido Pen — 2006(1) (i.r.pen@rug.nl)
Keywords: inbreeding, inclusive fitness, kin selection, monogamy, parent-offspring conflict, polyandry, polygyny, sex allocation, sex determination, sex-specific dispersal

Sperm competition and sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites: A new look at Charnov's invariance principle. 
I. Pen & F. J. Weissing — 1999(5)  
Keywords: allocation components, evolutionary stability, fitness, hermaphrodites, sex allocation, sperm displacement

The evolutionary transitions among feeding styles and habitats in ungulates.
F. Javier Pérez-Barbería, Iain J. Gordon & Carlos Nores — 2001(2) (j.perez-barberia@mluri.sari.ac.uk)  
Keywords: browser, diet, grazer, habitat use

Differences in body mass and oral morphology between the sexes in the Artiodactyla: Evolutionary relationships with sexual segregation.
F. Javier Pérez-Barbería & Iain J. Gordon — 2000(5) (j.perez-barberia@mluri.sari.ac.uk)
Keywords: allometry, body mass, comminution, comparative method, food selection, intake

Comparison of two methods for analysing the biological factors contributing to assortative mating or sexual isolation.
Andrés Pérez-Figueroa, Jacobo De Uńa-Alvarez, Paula Conde-Padín & Emilio Rolán-Alvarez — 2008(8) (anpefi@uvigo.es)
Keywords: estimation properties, incipient speciation, mate choice, mate discrimination, mating behaviour, regression, speciation

A test of the fast-slow continuum model of life-history variation in the lizard Sceloporus grammicus.
Hibraim A. Pérez-Mendoza & J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega — 2014(3) (hibraimperez@ciencias.unam.mx)
Keywords: age at maturity, body growth, life-history evolution, litter size, size at maturity, stage-specific mortality

Adaptive plasticity of life-history traits to pond drying in three species of Patagonian anurans.
María Gabriela Perotti, F G Jara & C A Úbeda — 2011(4) (perottigaby@yahoo.com)
Keywords: adaptive plasticity, development, Patagonian anurans, pond drying, size at metamorphosis

Consequences of reduced genetic variance on developmental instability estimators.
Cino Pertoldi, Ditte Holm Andersen, Torsten Nygĺrd Kristensen & Volker Loeschcke — 2003(6) (biocp@nf.au.dk)
Keywords: fluctuating asymmetry, genetic drift, genetic variance, phenotypic variance

Implementation of mixture analysis on quantitative traits in studies of neutral versus selective divergence.
Cino Pertoldi, Hanne Birgitte Hede Jørgensen, Ettore Randi, Lasse Fast Jensen, Anders Kjćrsgaard, Volker Loeschcke & Søren Faurby — 2012(7) (biocp@nf.au.dk)
Keywords: evolutionarily significant unit, FST-QST and FST-PST comparisons, genetic structure, local adaptation, morphometrics, natural selection

Genetic consequences of population decline in the Danish population of the little owl (Athene noctua).
Cino Pertoldi, Irene Pellegrino, Marco Cucco, Nadia Mucci, Ettore Randi, Jørgen Terp Laursen, Peter Sunde, Volker Loeschcke & Torsten Nygaard Kristensen — 2012(7) (biovl@nf.au.dk)
Keywords: conservation, microsatellites, old DNA, population bottlenecks, temporal and spatial variation

Heat-induced maternal effects in Drosophila mercatorum and its evolutionary consequences.
Cino Pertoldi, Anni Rřgilds, Ditte Holm Andersen & Volker Loeschcke — 2005(2) (biocp@nf.au.dk)
Keywords: developmental instability, environmental variability, maternal effect, phenotypic variability, thermal stress

Developmental instability in sexual reproducing and parthenogenetic populations of Bacillus rossius rossius and B. rossius redtenbacheri (Insecta Phasmatodea).
Cino Pertoldi, V. Scali & V. Loeschske — 2001(4) ( biocp@nf.au.dk)  
Keywords: amphigonic reproduction, developmental instability, fluctuating asymmetry, parthenogenetic reproduction

Lerner's theory on the genetic relationship between heterozygosity, genomic co-adaptation and developmental instability revisited.
Cino Pertoldi, Jesper G. Sřrensen, Jean R. David & Joan M. Herbers — 2006(8) (biocp@nf.au.dk)
Keywords: admixture analysis, developmental instability, environmental variability, homeostasis, Lerner's conjecture

Specific effects of cycling stressful temperatures upon phenotypic and genetic variability of size traits in Drosophila melanogaster.
G. Pétavy, J. R. David, V. Debat, P. Gibert & B. Moreteau — 2004(6) (Brigitte.Moreteau@pge.cnrs-gif.fr)
Keywords: daily cycles, evolvability, genetic correlation, intraclass correlation, isofemale lines, phenotypic correlation, thorax length, wing length

Phenotypic and genetic variability of sternopleural bristle number in Drosophila melanogaster under daily thermal stress: developmental instability and anti-symmetry.
G. Pétavy, J.R. David, V. Debat, C. Pertoldi & B. Moreteau — 2006(1) (Brigitte.Moreteau@pge.cnrs-gif.fr)
Keywords: bilateral symmetry, bimodality, canalization, cold stress, fluctuating asymmetry, heat stress, intraclass correlation, isofemale lines

Egg maturation, nest state, and sex ratios: a dynamic state variable model.
Jason H. Peterson & Bernard D. Roitberg — 2010(3) (jhpeters@alumni.sfu.ca)
Keywords: dynamic state variable model, Hymenoptera, nest provisioning decisions, offspring sex ratio, optimizing multiple resources.

When nesting involves two sequential, mutually exclusive activities: what's a mother to do?
Jason H. Peterson, Bernard D. Roitberg & Ron C. Ydenberg — 2007(7) (jhpeters@alumni.sfu.ca)
Keywords: dynamic state variable model, Hymenoptera, nest provisioning decisions, offspring sex ratio, resource allocation, solitary bee

Population differences in condition-dependent sexual selection may promote divergence in non-sexual traits.
Karin S. Pfennig — 2008(5) (kpfennig@email.unc.edu)
Keywords: fitness trade-offs, mate choice, mate-quality recognition, reproductive character displacement, sexual selection, speciation, species recognition

Ecological selection and hybrid fitness: hybrids succeed on parental resources.
Karin S. Pfennig, Amanda J. Chunco & Alycia C.R. Lackey — 2007(2) (kpfennig@email.unc.edu)
Keywords: competition, ecological speciation, hybridization, reinforcement, reproductive isolation

Comparative analysis of range sizes in Helicidae s.l. (Pulmonata, Gastropoda).
Markus Pfenninger — 2004(3) (Pfenninger@zoology.uni-frankfurt.de)
Keywords: land snails, macroecology, Rapoport effect

A comparison of pollen-siring ability and life history between males and hermaphrodites of subdioecious Silene acaulis.
Marianne Philipp, Ruth Bruus Jakobsen & Gösta Nachman — 2009(5) (Marianp@bio.ku.dk)
Keywords: Arctic, gynodioecy, pollen competition, Silene acaulis, subdioecy

Invasiveness in exotic plant species is linked to high seed survival in the soil.
Megan L. Phillips & Brad R. Murray — 2012(1) (Megan.Phillips@uts.edu.au)
Keywords: exotic plants, invasive species, naturalization to invasion, seed size, soil fungi

Assessing the potential for an evolutionary response to rapid environmental change: Invasive toads and an Australian snake.
Ben L. Phillips, Gregory P. Brown & Richard Shine — 2004(6) (Phillips@bio.usyd.edu.au)
Keywords: conservation, contemporary evolution, invasive species, predator-prey

Sex ratio and virulence in two species of lizard malaria parasites.
John Pickering, A.F. Read, S. Guerrero & Stuart A. West — 2000(2) (stu.west@ed.ac.uk)
Keywords: gametocytes, parasitaemia, Plasmodium, population structure, selfing, virulence

Phenotypic integration and response to stress in Arabidopsis thaliana: a path analytical approach.
Massimo Pigliucci & Ania Kolodynska — 2006(3) (pigliucci@genotypebyenvironment.org)Keywords: Arabidopsis, environmental stress, path analysis, phenotypic integration, phenotypic plasticity

Phenotypic plasticity in response to foliar and neutral shade in gibberellin mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Massimo Pigliucci & Johanna Schmitt — 2004(2) (pigliucci@utk.edu)
Keywords: gibberellin, irradiance, mutants, phenotypic plasticity, red: far red light ratio, shade avoidance

Comparative evidence for strong phylogenetic inertia in precloacal signalling glands in a species-rich lizard clade.
Daniel Pincheira-Donoso, Dave J. Hodgson & Tom Tregenza — 2008(1) (T.Tregenza@exeter.ac.uk)
Keywords: chemical communication, comparative method, Liolaemus, lizards, phylogenetic inertia, precloacal glands

Functional and phylogenetic constraints in Rhinocerotinae craniodental morphology.
Paolo Piras, Leonardo Maiorino, Pasquale Raia, Federica Marcolini, Daniele Salvi, Leonardo Vignoli & Tassos Kotsakis — 2010(8) (ppiras@uniroma3.it)
Keywords: comparative methods, craniodental morphology, Europe, feeding habits, geometric morphometrics, Plio-Pleistocene, Rhinocerotinae

Ectoparasites help to maintain variation in cell-mediated immunity in the blue tit - hen flea system.
Natalia Pitala, Heli Siitari, Lars Gustafsson & Jon E.Brommer — 2009(1) (jon.brommer@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: ecological immunology (immunoecology), ectoparasites, evolutionary quantitative genetics, reciprocal cross-fostering, restricted maximum likelihood linear mixed model

Giant water bug (Belostoma sp.) predation on a cave fish (Poecilia mexicana): effects of female body size and gestational state.
Martin Plath, Rüdiger Riesch, Zach Culumber, Bruno Streit & Michael Tobler — 2011(2) (mplath@bio.uni-frankfurt.de)
Keywords: aquatic surface respiration, cave fish, life-history evolution, Poeciliidae, size-selective predation

The role of sexual selection in purging the genome of induced mutations in the bulb mite (Rizoglyphus robini).
Agata Plesnar, Magdalena Konior & Jacek Radwan — 2011(2) (agata.plesnar@uj.edu.PL)
Keywords: condition dependence, deleterious mutations, good genes, maintenance of sex

Dynamics of testes size compensates for male body-size variation.
Sharon T. Pochron & Patricia C. Wright — 2002(4) (spochron@ms.cc.sunysb.edu)
Keywords: intrasexual competition, lemurs, mating systems, sexual dimorphism, sperm competition

The relative contribution of individual and kin selection to the evolution of density-dependent dispersal rates.
Hans J. Poethke, Brenda Pfenning & Thomas Hovestadt — 2007(1) (poethke@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de>)
Keywords: dispersal rate, evolutionary modelling, individual-based model, kin competition, metapopulation

The three-quarter-power scaling of extinction risk in Late Pleistocene mammals, and a new theory of the size selectivity of extinction.
Leonard V. Polishchuk — 2010(1) (leonard_polishchuk@hotmail.com)
Keywords: allometric scaling, body mass, extinction pattern, logistic regression

On the size selectivity of extinction in Late Pleistocene mammals: a mini-forum based on Polishchuk — 2010(3).
Oskar Burger & Lev Ginsburg (oburger@stanford.edu) Felisa A. Smith, Marcus J. Hamilton & James H. Brown (fasmith@unm.edu) John Damuth (damuth@lifesci.ucsb.edu) Michael L. Rosenzweig (scarab@u.arizona.edu) Leonard V. Polishchuk (leonard_polishchuk@hotmail.com)

Suicidal punishment in the ant Acromyrmex versicolor.
Gregory B. Pollock, Antonio Cabrales, Steven W. Rissing & Kenneth G. Binmore — 2012(8) (k.binmore@ucl.ac.uk)
Keywords: Acromyrmex versicolor, coordination mechanism, group selection, pleiotropy, self-preservation, stochastic stability, subgame perfection, suicidal punishment, viscous dispersal

Suicidal altruism under random assortment.
Gregory B. Pollock & Antonio Cabrales — 2008(7) (suzuki.court@live.com)
Keywords: contingent strong altruism, correlated strategy, predation, random assortment, suicidal altruism, trait group selection, weak altruism

On suicidal punishment among Acromyrmex versicolor cofoundresses: the disadvantage in personal advantage.
Gregory B. Pollock, Antonio Cabrales & Steven W. Rissing — 2004(6) (g.pollock@worldnet.att.net)
Keywords: Acromyrmex versicolor co-foundresses, cheating, coordination mechanisms, group selection, personally best response, suicidal punishment, viscosity

Comparative studies of reaction norms in Arabidopsis. I. Evolution of response to daylength.
Heidi Pollard, Mitchell Cruzan & Massimo Pigliucci — 2001(2) (pigliucci@utk.edu)   Keywords: Arabidopsis, comparative method, daylength, intraspecific phylogeny, reaction norms, phenotypic plasticity

Balancing the thermal costs and benefits of refuge use to cope with persistent attacks from predators: a model and an experiment with an alpine lizard.
Vicente Polo, Pilar López & José Martín — 2005(1) (Jose.Martin@mncn.csic.es)
Keywords: costs of refuge use, Lacerta monticola, lizards, predation risk

On the origin of phylogenetic structure in competitive metacommunities.
Mikael Pontarp, Jörgen Ripa & Per Lundberg — 2012(3) (mikael.pontarp@biol.lu.se)
Keywords: assembly, community, competition, ecology, evolution, phylogenetic structure

Introgression of sexually selected traits in lek-mating species.
Federico Prado, Timothy Billo & Benjamin Kerr — 2009(8) (fprado@u.washington.edu)
Keywords: female choice, hybrid zones, invasion, leks, Manacus, manakins, migration, population structure, sexual selection, travelling wave, unidirectional introgression, gene flow

Interaction between the effects of maternal and larval levels of nutrition on pre-adult survival in Drosophila melanogaster.
N.G. Prasad, Mallikarjun Shakarad, M. Rajamani & Amitabh Joshi — 2003(6) (ajoshi@jncasr.ac.in)
Keywords: Drosophila, dry weight, fitness, larval survivorship, life history, maternal effect, nutrition

Variation in immune defence in relation to developmental pathway in the green-veined white butterfly, Pieris napi.
Keshav Prasai & Bengt Karlsson — 2011(3) (bengt.karlsson@zoologi.su.se)
Keywords: diapause, direct development, immune system, phenotypic plasticity, seasonal polymorphism, trade-off

Comparative ecology of membracids and tenthredinids in a macroevolutionary context.
Peter W. Price & T.G. Carr — 2000(5) (peter.price@nau.edu)
Keywords: adaptive syndromes, emergent properties, Homoptera: Membracidae, Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, phylogenetic constraints

Which species become aliens?
Andreas Prinzing, Walter Durka, Stefan Klotz & Roland Brandl — 2002(3) (andreasprinzing2@lycos.de)
Keywords: Argentina, dispersal, ecological versatility, invasive species, life strategy, neophyte, pre-adaptation, species pool

Does sexual selection influence population trends in European birds?
Andreas Prinzing, Martin Brändle, Robert Pfeifer & Roland Brandl — 2002(1) (prin@oesa.ufz.de)
Keywords: conservation, dimorphism, global change, macroecology, natural selection

Maternal effects and epidemiological traits in a planktonic host-parasite system.
Nora H. Prior, Cherise N. Washington, Jessica M. Housley, Spencer R. Hall, Meghan A. Duffy & Carla E. Cáceres — 2011(4) (nhprior@zoology.ubc.ca)
Keywords: Daphnia–Metschnikowia system, host–parasite, immunological priming, maternal effects, trans-generational effects

Declining interspecific competition during character displacement: summoning the ghost of competition past.
John R. Pritchard & Dolph Schluter — 2001(2) (schluter@zoology.ubc.ca)  
Keywords: adaptive radiation, character displacement, competition, sticklebacks

Geographic variation in sexual signals and behaviour in two species of poison frogs.
Heike Pröhl, Beatriz Willink & Susanne Hauswaldt 2013(6) (Heike.Proehl@tiho-hannover.de)
Keywords: acoustic signals, dendrobatid frogs, genetic divergence, natural selection, Oophaga, sexual selection, visual signals

Contribution of phenotypic plasticity and heredity to the trophic polymorphism of lacustrine brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis M.).
Raphaël Proulx & Pierre Magnan — 2004(4) (pierre_magnan@uqtr.ca)
Keywords: adaptive morphology, brook trout, common garden experiment, functional morphology, heredity, phenotypic plasticity, reciprocal transplant experiment, resource polymorphism, sexual dimorphism

Emergent phenotypes: association between morphology and coloration in fish.
Raphaël Proulx, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent & Lael Parrott — 2008(7) (rafael.proulx@gmail.com)
Keywords: functional ecology, macroecology, species diversity, trait integration

Niche shifts and expansion due to sexual selection.
Stephen R. Proulx — 2002(3) (proulx@proulxresearch.org)
Keywords: evolution, mating systems, niche breadth, sexual selection

Long-term storage lipids and developmental evolution in echinoderms.
Thomas A. A. Prowse, Inke Falkner, Mary A. Sewell & Maria Byrne — 2009(7) (tprowse@anatomy.usyd.edu.au)
Keywords: developmental mode, diacylglycerol ether, echinoderm, evolution, Iatroscan, lipid, triacylglycerol

Sex-specific co-variation among life history traits of yellow perch (Perca flavescens).
Craig F. Purchase, N.C. Collins, George E. Morgan & B.J. Shuter — 2005(4) (purchasecraig@hotmail.com)
Keywords: inter-population, intraspecific, life history, sexual dimorphism, yellow perch

The biological and statistical significance of life-history invariants in walleye (Sander vitreus).
Craig F. Purchase, Jeffrey A. Hutchings & George E. Morgan — 2006(2) (purchasecraig@hotmail.com)
Keywords: covariation, life-history invariants, inter-population, statistical power, walleye

Evidence for adaptive sex allocation in Tamalia coweni (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in response to nutrient variability in Arctostaphylos patula.
George Colin Purdy & Donald G. Miller — 2013(1) (DGMiller@csuchico.edu)
Keywords: aphid, gall, nitrogen, parental investment, sex ratio, Trivers-Willard hypothesis

Ultraviolet reflectance in a melanin-based plumage trait is heritable.
Isabelle Py, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Nadčge Duvoisin, Lucas Fumagalli & Alexandre Roulin — 2006(3) (Alexandre.Roulin@unil.ch)
Keywords: colour polymorphism, heritability, melanin, plumage coloration, sex determination, structural coloration, Tyto alba, ultraviolet reflectance

Natural selection in sockeye salmon: interactions between body size, reproductive opportunity and vulnerability to predation by bears.
Thomas P. Quinn, Andrew P. Hendry & Gregory B. Buck — 2001(8) (tquinn@u.washington.edu)
Keywords: bears, evolution, Pacific salmon, predation, reproductive success

Contemporary divergence in migratory timing of naturalized populations of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in New Zealand.
Thomas P. Quinn, Martin J. Unwin & Michael T. Kinnison — 2011(1) (tquinn@u.washington.edu)
Keywords: evolution, migration, phenology, reproduction, salmon, timing

Inbreeding but not stress increases fluctuating asymmetry in the bulb mite.
Jacek Radwan — 2003(2) (radwan@eko.uj.edu.pl)
Keywords: developmental stability, fluctuating asymmetry, heterozygosity, inbreeding depression, Rhizoglyphus robini

Metabolic costs of sexual advertisement in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).
Jacek Radwan, Magdalena Chadzińska, Mariusz Cichoń, Suzanne C. Mills, Beata Matuła, Edyta T. Sadowska, Katarzyna Baliga, Anna Stanisz, Sylwia Łopuch & Paweł Koteja — 2006(5) (radwan@eko.uj.edu.pl)
Keywords: chemical communication, mate choice, scent marking, sexual selection, social dominance

Using stage–structured evolutionary game theory to model the experimentally observed evolution of a genetic polymorphism.
Rosalyn C. Rael, Robert F. Costantino, James M. Cushing & Thomas L. Vincent — 2009(2) (rrael@math.arizona.edu)
Keywords: allele frequency, evolutionary game theory, genetic polymorphism, LPA stage-structured model, Tribolium

Genetically based differences in nest characteristics between lake, inlet, and hybrid threespine stickleback from the Misty system, British Columbia, Canada.
Joost A.M. Raeymaekers, Lari Delaire & Andrew P. Hendry — 2009(6) (joost.raeymaekers@bio.kuleuven.be)
Keywords: adaptive divergence, assortative mating, ecological speciation, hybrids, mate choice, nest architecture, nest building, reproductive isolation, sexual selection

The effect of fluctuating temperatures on ectotherm life-history traits: comparisons among geographic populations of Wyeomyia smithii.
Gregory J. Ragland & Joel G. Kingsolver — 2008(1) (gragland@ufl.edu)
Keywords: environmental variability, Kaufmann effect, life-history evolution, reaction norm, temperature

Reproductive skew theory extended: the effect of resource inheritance on social organization. 
Janice E. Ragsdale — 1999(7) (ragsdale@biology.utah.edu
Keywords: future fitness, queue, reproductive skew, resource inheritance, social organization

Cope's Law of the Unspecialized, Cope's Rule, and weak directionality in evolution.
Pasquale Raia & Mikael Fortelius — 2013(7) (pasquale.raia@unina.it)
Keywords: Cope's Rule, Cope's Law of the Unspecialized, weak directionality, body size, ecological specialization

Species occupancy and its course in the past: macroecological patterns in extinct communities.
Pasquale Raia, Carlo Meloro, Anna Loy & Carmela Barbera — 2006(1) (pasquale.raia@libero.it)
Keywords: Galerian, large mammals, macroecology, occupancy, Villafranchian

Competition enhances spatial genetic differentiation.
Esa Ranta, Lars A. Bach, Veijo Kaitala, Mats Björklund & Per Lundberg — 2009(8) (Lars.Bach@teorekol.lu.se)
Keywords: community genetics, competition, FST , Lotka-Volterra, spatial structure,species diversity, stepping-stone

Environmental forcing and genetic differentiation in subdivided populations.
Esa Ranta, Veijo Kaitala, Mats Björklund, Per Lundberg, Lars A Bach & Nils Chr. Stenseth — 2008(1) (esa.ranta@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: climate change, drift, environmental noise, genetic differentiation, population dynamics

Local extinctions promote coexistence of semelparous and iteroparous life histories.
Esa Ranta, David Tesar & Veijo Kaitala — 2001(7) (DAVID.TESAR@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: co-existence, Cole's paradox, iteroparity, life history, semelparity, stochasticity

Relative importance of MHC and genetic background for parasite load in a field experiment.
Gisep Rauch, Martin Kalbe & Thorsten B.H. Reusch — 2006(2) (rauch@mpil-ploen.mpg.de)
Keywords: adaptive and innate immune system, Gasterosteus aculeatus, major histocompatibility complex, parasite load

Implications of habitat choice for protected polymorphisms.
Virginie Ravigné, Isabelle Olivieri & Ulf Dieckmann — 2004(1) (ravigne@isem.univ-montp2.fr)
Keywords: Dempster, density regulation, hard selection, heterogeneous environments, Levene, local adaptation, soft selection, specialization, subdivided populations

Trophic niche differentiation and phenotypic divergence among cryptic species of Japanese ninespine stickleback.
Mark Ravinet, Asano Ishikawa & Jun Kitano — 2016(4) (jkitano@lab.nig.ac.jp)
Keywords: diet, ecological speciation, exchangeability analysis, resource, sexual dimorphism, stickleback

On Irish stickleback: morphological diversification in a secondary contact zone.
Mark Ravinet, Paulo A. Prodöhl & Chris Harrod — 2013(3) (mravinet01@qub.ac.uk)
Keywords: ecomorphological divergence, non-parallelism, parallelism, secondary contact, stickleback

The temporal and spatial scale of microevolution: Fine-scale colour pattern variation in the Lake Erie watersnake, Nerodia sipedon insularum.
Julie M. Ray & Richard B. King — 2006(5) (jray@odu.edu)
Keywords: colour pattern, gene flow, islands, population genetics, selection, snakes

Optimal offspring size influenced by the interaction between dissolved oxygen and predation pressure.
Erin E. Reardon & Xavier Thibert-Plante — 2010(3) (erin.reardon@mail.mcgill.ca)
Keywords: body size, fish, hypoxia, implicit derivation model, predator-prey

The effects of incubation environment,sex and pedigree on the hatchling phenotype in a natural population of loggerhead turtles.
Sarah E. Reece, A.C. Broderick, B.J. Godley & S.A. West — 2002(5) (sarah.reece@ed.ac.uk)
Keywords: loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, environmental sex determination, incubation temperature, pedigree, phenotype

The co-evolutionary relationship between bitterling fishes and freshwater mussels: insights from interspecific comparisons.
Martin Reichard, Huanzhang Liu & Carl Smith — 2007(2) (reichard@brno.cas.cz)
Keywords: brood parasitism, co-evolution, egg ejection, host-parasite relationship, mutualism, oviposition, specialization, symbiosis

Size-dependent energetics of metamorphosis in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria.
Constanze Reim, Christian Kaufmann & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn — 2009(7) (wolfman@zoolmus.unizh.ch)
Keywords: artificial selection, body size, development, energy reserves, insect pupa, life history, metabolic rate, survival

Size-dependent effects of temperature and food stress on energy reserves and starvation resistance in yellow dung flies.
Constanze Reim, Yvonne Teuschl and Wolf U. Blanckenhorn — 2006(7) (wolfman@zoolmus.unizh.ch)
Keywords: allometry, artificial selection, body size, condition, food limitation, life history, metabolic rate, reproduction, starvation resistance, survival, thermal stress, viability

Natural selection and the adaptive radiation of Haida Gwaii stickleback.
Thomas E. Reimchen, Carolyn Bergstrom & Patrik Nosil — 2013(3) (reimchen@uvic.ca)
Keywords: body size, Canadian Galapagos, dystrophic lakes, morphological variability, predator-–prey defences, Queen Charlotte Islands, stickleback

Sex matters for defense and trophic traits of threespine stickleback.
Thomas E. Reimchen, D. Steeves & Carolyn A. Bergstrom — 2016(4) (reimchen@uvic.ca)
Keywords: adaptive variation, diversifying selection, Gasterosteus, Haida Gwaii, niche width, sexual dimorphism

Comparing sperm swimming speed.
Klaus Reinhardt & Oliver Otti — 2012(8) (k.reinhardt@uni-tuebingen.de)
Keywords: automated sperm analysis, mouthbrooding, sperm age, sperm competition, sperm senescence, sperm velocity, trade-off

Influences of habitat distribution and maternal investment on settlement of lecithotrophic larvae: modelling an ecological transition.
Adam M. Reitzel & Brandon R. Chockley — 2005(2) (reitzel@bu.edu)
Keywords: dynamic optimization, habitat distribution, habitat quality, lecithotrophic larva, maternal investment, settlement

Reduction in morphological plasticity in echinoid larvae: relationship of plasticity with maternal investment and food availability.
Adam M. Reitzel & Andreas Heyland — 2007(1) (reitzel@bu.edu>)
Keywords: larva, maternal investment, phenotypic plasticity, pluteus

Testing quantitative genetic hypotheses about the evolutionary rate matrix for continuous characters.
Liam J. Revell & Luke J. Harmon — 2008(3) (lrevell@fas.harvard.edu)
Keywords: Brownian motion, comparative method, evolutionary constraint, genetic constraint, phylogenetic generalized least squares, maximum likelihood, phylogenetics

A phylogenetic approach to determining the importance of constraint on phenotypic evolution in the neotropical lizard Anolis cristatellus.
Liam J. Revell, Luke J. Harmon, R. Brian Langerhans & Jason J. Kolbe — 2007(2) (lrevell@fas.harvard.edu)
Keywords: evolutionary constraint, genetic variance-covariance matrix, independent contrasts, matrix comparison, phenotypic variance-covariance matrix, quantitative genetics

Prolonged swimming performance within the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) adaptive radiation and the effect of dietary restriction.
Miguel L. Reyes & John A. Baker — 2016(4) (mreyes@clarku.edu)
Keywords: ecotype variation, Gasterosteus aculeatus, nutrient deprivation, swimming stamina, threespine stickleback

Rapidly evolving traits and the comparative method: how important is testing for phylogenetic signal?
Frank E. Rheindt, T. Ulmar Grafe & Ehab Abouheif — 2004(3) (formicarius@hotmail.com)
Keywords: bird song, habitat, phylogenetic autocorrelation, phylogenetically based comparative methods, rapid evolution

Burst swim speed in tadpoles inhabiting ponds with different top predators.
Jean M.L. Richardson — 2002(5) (jmlr@zoo.utoronto.ca)
Keywords: Anura, anti-predator traits, burst swim speed, community ecology, comparative study, evolutionary correlations, functional relationships, tadpoles

A comparative analysis of the adaptive developmental plasticity hypothesis in six Mediterranean anuran species along a pond permanency gradient.
Alex Richter-Boix, Gustavo A. Llorente & Albert Montori — 2006(6) (arichterboix@ub.edu)
Keywords: habitat desiccation, metamorphosis, phenotypic plasticity, tadpoles

Effects of phenotypic plasticity on post-metamorphic traits during pre-metamorphic stages in the anuran Pelodytes punctatus.
Alex Richter-Boix, Gustavo A. Llorente & Albert Montori — 2006(2) (arichterboix@ub.edu)
Keywords: habitat desiccation, metamorphosis, morphology, phenotypic plasticity, tadpoles

Incubation temperature in the wild influences hatchling phenotype of two freshwater turtle species.
Julia L. Riley, Steven Freedberg & Jacqueline D. Litzgus — 2014(5) (jlitzgus@laurentian.ca)
Keywords: righting response, oviposition date, temperature-dependent sex determination, constant temperature equivalent, temperature-dependent differential fitness hypothesis, Charnov-Bull hypothesis, maternal condition-dependent choice hypothesis

Replacement and displacement driven by innovations, competition and extinctions.
Jörgen Ripa & Jacob Johansson — 2016(6) (jorgen.ripa@biol.lu.se)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, competition, extinction, incumbent replacement, key innovation, macroevolution, relict species.

Niche co-evolution in consumer–resource communities.
Jörgen Ripa, Lena Storlind, Per Lundberg & Joel S. Brown — 2009(2) (jorgen.ripa@teorekol.lu.se)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, co-evolution, evolutionarily stable strategy, evolutionary dynamics, fitness-generating function, niche archetypes, niche co-evolution, species diversity

The physiological costs of being small in a parasitic wasp.
Ana Rivero & Stuart A. West — 2002(3) (Ana.Rivero@ed.ac.uk)
Keywords: lipids, parasitoids, resource allocation, size-fitness relationship

Parallelism and divergence in immune responses: a comparison of expression levels in two lakes.
Shaun Robertson, Janette E. Bradley & Andrew D.C. MacColl — 2016(2) (plxsr3@nottingham.ac.uk)
Keywords: Gasterosteus aculeatus, gene expression, host–pathogen interactions, immunoecology, Schistocephalus solidus, threespine stickleback, wild immunology.

Habitat selection under the risk of infectious disease.
Suzanne L. Robertson & Ian M. Hamilton — 2012(1) (srobertson@mbi.osu.edu)
Keywords: habitat selection, ideal free distribution, infectious disease transmission, undermatching

Causes of variation in genotype × environment interaction.
Rafael Lucas Rodríguez 2013(6) (rafa@uwm.edu)
Keywords: genotype × environment interaction, maintenance of variation

Of rats and Maoris: a novel method for the analysis of patterns of extinction in the New Zealand avifauna before European contact.
Derek A. Roff & Robin J. Roff — 2003(5) (derek.roff@ucr.edu)
Keywords: extinction, logistic regression, Maoris, pacific rat, regression trees

Resource partitioning among flower visitors: extensions of Possingham's model.
Miguel A. Rodríguez-Gironés — 2006(5) (rgirones@eeza.csic.es)
Keywords: exploitation competition, floral nectar, habitat selection, ideal free distribution, optimal foraging.

The evolution of sex-change timing under environmental uncertainty: a test by simulation.
Lock Rogers & Alan Koch — 2011(4) (lrogers@agnesscott.edu)
Keywords: asymmetric fitness surface, early sex change, genetic algorithm, probabilistic size-advantage

Evolution of asymmetry in sexual isolation: a criticism of a test case.
Emilio Rolán-Alvarez — 2004(7) (rolan@uvigo.es)
Keywords: assortative mating, mating behaviour, model testing, reproductive isolation, sexual isolation

Estimating condition: pitfalls of using weight as a fitness correlate.
Jens Rolff & Gerrit Joop — 2002(6) (jor@sheffield.ac.uk )
Keywords: condition correlates, fresh weight, physiology, state

Does ion limitation select for pelvic reduction in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)?
Jennifer L. Rollins, Brian K. Lohman & Michael A. Bell — 2014(2) (jennifer.rollins@stonybrook.edu)
Keywords: selection agent, growth rate, calcium limitation, ion concentration, salinity, trade-off

Why does egg size increase with maternal size? Effects of egg size and egg density on offspring phenotypes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
Njal Rollinson & Jeffrey A. Hutchings — 2010(8) (Njal.Rollinson@gmail.com)
Keywords: density dependence, emergence time, maternal effects, optimal egg size, yolk sac

Fine-scale life-history structure in a highly mobile marine fish.
Nancy E. Roney, Jeffrey A. Hutchings, Esben Moland Olsen, Halvor Knutsen, Jon Albretsen & Anna Kuparinen — 2016(1) (neroney@gmail.com)
Keywords: Gadus morhua, life history, maturity, Skagerrak, small-scale.

On the evolution of extinction rates.
Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2016(6) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)
Keywords: group selection, Coryphantha, consumption of the variance, senescence, sex, tolerance/intolerance competition, shared-preference habitat selection, Phanerozoic.

A new approach to relative speciation rates — a comment on López-Villalta.
Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2011(8) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)
Keywords: steady-state diversity

My Uncle Larry.
Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2009(3) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)

A tribute to Tom Vincent.
Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2009(2) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)

A promising cluster of contributions.
Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2006(4) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)
Keywords: biomathematics, Japan, MacArthur, stainless steel

John Maynard Smith (1920-2004)
Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2004(4) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)

Ecology should take credit for its accomplishments: a reply.
Michael Rosenzweig — 2002(3) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)
Keywords: diversity conservation, exotic species, extrapolation, global and regional species diversity, homogenization, inter-provincial species-area curves, steady-state species diversity, temporal scale, z-values

The distraction hypothesis depends on relatively cheap extrafloral nectaries.
Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2002(2) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)
Keywords: extrafloral nectaries, Kerner hypothesis

A note on our cover illustrations.
Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2001(8) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)

The four questions: What does the introduction of exotic species do to diversity?
Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2001(3) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)  
Keywords: alien species, extinction, Homogocene, New Pangaea

Patterns in the diversity of the world's land vertebrate genera.
Michael L. Rosenzweig, Vanessa Buzzard, John Donoghue II, Gavin Lehr, Natasha Mazumdar, Haley M Rasmussen, Irena Simova, Scott Trageser, Heather Wernett & Jingzi Xu — 2013(8) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)
Keywords: global generic diversity, conservation biology, New Pangaea, World Wildlife Fund

An ecological telescope to view future terrestrial vertebrate diversity.
Michael L. Rosenzweig, Fred Drumlevitch, Kathi L. Borgmann, Aaron D. Flesch, Susana M. Grajeda, Glenn Johnson, Kelly Mackay, Kerry L. Nicholson, Virginia Patterson, Benjamin M. Pri-Tal, Nicolas Ramos-Lara & Karla Pelz Serrano — 2012(3) (scarab@u.arizona.edu)
Keywords: climate, ecoregions, endemicity, mass extinction, realms, species–area relationships, species diversity, steady states, zoological regions

By special arrangement with the editors of Ecography, Evolutionary Ecology Research brings its subscribers one of the mini-reviews written to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Oikos
The echo pattern of species diversityEcography — 1999(December)
Michael L. Rosenzweig & Yaron Ziv (scarab@u.arizona.edu)

Alpha radiation is a major germ-line mutagen over evolutionary timescales.
Kenneth Andrew Ross — 2006(6) (kar@cs.columbia.edu)
Keywords: karyotypic change, mutation, ploidy

Sex allocation in a species with paternal genome elimination: the role of crowding and female age in the mealybug Planococcus citri.
Laura Ross, Minke B.W. Langenhof, Ido Pen, Leo W. Beukeboom, Stuart A. West & David M. Shuker — 2010(1) (L.Ross@rug.nl)
Keywords: local resource competition, mealybug, sex determination, sex ratio

Overripening of eggs and changes in reproductive hormones in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus.
Chrysoula Roufidou, Marion Sebire, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Arshi Mustafa, Monika Schmitz, Ian Mayer, Yi Ta Shao & Bertil Borg — 2016(4) (chrysoula.roufidou@zoologi.su.se)
Keywords: testosterone, estradiol, 17,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, 17,20β,21-trihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, fsh-β, lh-β, gnrh2, gnrh3, kiss2, gpr54, ovulation, spawning, overripe, reproduction, stickleback, teleosts

Effects of hatching asynchrony on sibling negotiation, begging, jostling for position and within-brood food allocation in the barn owl, Tyto alba.
Alexandre Roulin — 2004(7) (Alexandre.Roulin@unil.ch)
Keywords: begging, hatching asynchrony, parent-offspring conflict, sibling competition, sibling negotiation, Tyto alba

Genetic and environmental effects on the covariation between colour polymorphism and a life-history trait.
Alexandre Roulin, Pierre Bize, Pierre-Alain Ravussin, Laurent Broch — 2004(8) (Alexandre.Roulin@unil.ch)
Keywords: colour polymorphism, disruptive selection, ecological niche, frequency-dependent selection, genetic-environment interaction, Strix aluco

Pre-hatching maternal effects and the tasty chick hypothesis.
Alexandre Roulin, Julien Gasparini & Lucie Froissart — 2008(3) (alexandre.roulin@unil.ch)
Keywords: growth, hatching asynchrony, host-parasite interactions, maternal effects, tasty chick hypothesis

A phylogenetic reconsideration of the pollen starch-pollination correlation.
T'ai Roulston & Steve Buchmann — 2000(5) (buchmann@tucson.ars.ag.gov)
Keywords: phylogeny, pollen, pollination, pollination syndrome, starch

Likelihood models for discriminating alternative phenotypes in morphologically dimorphic species.
J. Mark Rowland & Clifford R. Qualls — 2005(3) ( rowland@unm.edu)
Keywords: alternative tactics, horn dimorphism, intrasexual polyphenism, likelihood models, threshold traits

Evidence of small-scale vicariance in Caridina lanceolata (Decapoda: Atyidae) from the Malili Lakes, Sulawesi.
Denis Roy, David W. Kelly, Charles H.J.M. Fransen, Daniel D.Heath & G. Douglas Haffner — 2006(6) (royf@uwindsor.ca)
Keywords: cryptic species, dispersal, ecological significant unit, Lake Matano, Malili Lakes, population divergence, vicariance

Post-pollination processes and non-random mating among compatible mates.
Lauren G. Ruane — 2009(7) (Lauren.Ruane@cnu.edu)
Keywords: gametophytic competition, pollen siring success, post-pollination performance, ratio of pollen load size to ovule number, style length

Revenge of the host: Cannibalism, ontogenetic niche shifts, and the evolution of life-history strategies in host-parasitoid systems.
Volker H.W. Rudolf, Ian Sorrell & Amy B. Pedersen — 2012(1) (volker.rudolf@rice.edu)
Keywords: cannibalism, life-history evolution, mutual predation, ontogenetic niche shift, role reversal, size structure

Trophic plasticity and fine-grained resource variation in populations of western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis.
Clifton B. Ruehl & Thomas J. DeWitt — 2005(6) ( clifton.ruehl@fiu.edu)
Keywords: ecomorphology, fine-scale resource variation, foraging ecology, geometric morphometrics, induced morphology, population differentiation, resource polymorphism, trophic plasticity

Coevolution of jaegers (Stercorarius spp.) and arctic lemmings (Dicrostonyx spp. and Lemmus spp.) and the formation of the jaeger guild: a hypothesis.
Lise Ruffino & Tarja Oksanen (address corrected) — 2014(2) (lisruffino@gmail.com)
Keywords: Arctic, lemming–vegetation dynamics, predation, predator–prey co-evolution, tundra

Are sawflies adapted to individual host trees? A test of the adaptive deme formation hypothesis.
Haike Ruhnke, Martin Schädler, Diethart Matthies, Stefan Klotz & Roland Brandl — 2006(6) (ruhnke@genalis.de)
Keywords: adaptive deme formation, feeding trial, herbivory, intraspecific variation, local adaptation, relative growth rate, Macrophya punctumalbum, Tomostethus nigritus

Signal selection in a desert lily Pancratium sickenbergeri.
Natalia Ruiz-R., David Saltz & David Ward — 2006(8) (ward@ukzn.ac.za)
Keywords: geophytes, mammalian herbivory, pollination, reliable signals

Quantifying ant foraging preferences in the field using a slow-flow nectar pump.
Matthew T. Rutter — 2005(3) (rutter@wam.umd.edu)
Keywords: ant-plant interactions, diet preferences, foraging, nectar

Non-IFD movements: reflections on past work and prospects for future developments.
Graeme D. Ruxton & Stuart Humphries — 2003(1) (g.ruxton@bio.gla.ac.uk)
Keywords: competition, ideal free distribution, individual-based modelling, resource exploitation, stochastic simulation

Multiple ideal free distibutions of unequal competitors. 
G. D. Ruxton & S. Humphries — 1999(5)  
Keywords: habitat selection, ideal free distribution, patch switching, unequal competitors

Dynamics of parasite community during early ontogenesis of marine threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus.
E.V. Rybkina, A.S. Demchuk, D.L. Lajus, T.S. Ivanova, M.V. Ivanov & K.V. Galaktionov — 2016(3) (onebat@yandex.ru)
Keywords: Gasterosteus aculeatus, juveniles, parasites, threespine stickleback, White Sea

The living and the fossilised: how well do unevenly distributed points capture the faunal information in a grid?
Juha Saarinen, Emilia Oikarinen, Mikael Fortelius & Heikki Mannila — 2010(3) (Emilia.Oikarinen@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: grid data, incompleteness of the fossil record, NOW database, point data

Local adaptation in a crustacean parasite–molluscan host interaction: a field experiment.
Mari Saarinen & Jouni Taskinen — 2005(8) (marisaar@bytl.jyu.fi)
Keywords: Anodonta piscinalis, Ergasilidae, freshwater, host-parasite interactions, local adaptation, Paraergasilus rylovi, Unionidae

Inherited differences in foraging behaviour in the offspring of two forms of lacustrine brook charr.
S. Sacotte & Pierre Magnan — 2006(5) (pierre.magnan@uqtr.ca)
Keywords: activity pattern, brook charr, capture rate, foraging behaviour, morphology, swimming behaviour, trophic polymorphism

Kin-selective cannibalism and compensatory performance in larval salamander cohorts inhabiting temporary ponds.
Asaf Sadeh — 2012(1) (asaffield@yahoo.com)
Keywords: competition, desiccation risk, ephemeral habitats, inclusive fitness, kin discrimination

Group breeding in vertebrates: linking individual- and population-level approaches.
Rebecca J. Safran, Veronica A.J. Doerr, Paul. W. Sherman, Erik D. Doerr, Samuel M. Flaxman & David W. Winkler — 2007(7) (rebecca.safran@colorado.edu)
Keywords: coloniality, group breeding, group size, individual decisions, resource patchiness, social benefits, sociality

Altitudinal variation in lifetime growth trajectory and reproductive schedule of a sub-alpine conifer Abies mariesii.
Akiko Sakai, Kiyoshi Matsui, Daisuke Kabeya & Satoki Sakai — 2003(5) (gyoko@vege1.kan.ynu.ac.jp)
Keywords: elevational cline, life-history theory, maturation timing, reduction in tree size, reproductive effort

Evolution of exalbuminous seeds as a result of competition between maternally derived and paternally derived genes.
Satoki Sakai — 2010(7) (satoki@m.tohoku.ac.jp)
Keywords: albuminous seed, embryo, endosperm, exalbuminous seed, genomic imprinting, intragenomic conflict, resource absorption

Female-biased sexual allocation in cosexual plants: result of sink-limited growth of fruits.
Satoki Sakai — 1999(8) (sakai@mail.cc.tohoku.ac.jp)
Keywords: female-biased sexual allocatio, hermaphroditic plants, monoecious plants, sink-limited growth, source-limited growth

Optimal size and number of seeds when seeds suffer predispersal predation.
Satoki Sakai & Yasushi Harada — 2007(4) (sakai@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp)
Keywords: optimum seed number, optimum seed size, pre-dispersal predation, size-number trade-off, unpredictable predation

Why be completely outcrossing? Evolutionarily stable outcrossingstrategies in an environment where outcross-pollen availability is unpredictable. 
S. Sakai and H. S. Ishii — 1999(2)  
Keywords: best-of-both-worlds, delayed selfing, environmental variability, pollen availability, prepotency, reproductive assurance, selective abortion, self-incompatibility, selfing rate, size-number trade-off of seeds

Predator-induced defenses in offspring of laboratory and wild-caught snails: prey history impacts prey response.
Christopher J. Salice & Stephanie C. Plautz — 2011(4) (chris.salice@ttu.edu)
Keywords: non-consumptive effect, phenotypic plasticity, Physid, predator-–prey interaction, risk allocation hypothesis

Phenotypic complexity: integrated responses of life history characters to multiple environmental factors.
Santiago Salinas & Stephan B. Munch — 2014(3) (ssalinas@pacific.edu)
Keywords: phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic integration, reaction norm, growth rate, age at maturation, size at maturation

Variation in senescence and associated traits between sympatric cactophilic sibling species of Drosophila.
Pablo Sambucetti, Jesper G. Sřrensen, Volker Loeschcke & Fabian M. Norry — 2005(6) ( fnorry@ege.fcen.uba.ar)
Keywords: age-specific senescence rate, body size, Drosophila, early fecundity, genotype temperature interaction, heat-stress resistance, Hsp70 expression

Influence of game restocking on the migratory behaviour of the common quail, Coturnix coturnix.
Ines Sanchez-Donoso, José Domingo Rodríguez-Teijeiro, Irene Quintanilla, Irene Jiménez-Blasco, Francesc Sardà-Palomera, Jesús Nadal, Manel Puigcerver & Carles Vilà — 2014(6) (ines.sanchezdonoso@gmail.com)
Keywords: human-mediated changes, hybridization, introgression, migration, sedentarization, wintering

Pairwise coexistence of Bismarck and Solomon landbird species.
James G. Sanderson, Jared M. Diamond & Stuart L. Pimm — 2009(5) (stuartpimm@me.com)
Keywords: competition, co-occurrence, incidence function, null model, species pairs

Post-zygotic reproductive isolation among populations of Iris atropurpurea: the effect of spatial distance among crosses and the role of inbreeding and outbreeding depression in determining niche width.
Yuval Sapir & Rupert Mazzucco — 2012(4) (sapiry@post.tau.ac.il)
Keywords: conservation, habitat fragmentation, Iris section Oncocyclus, optimal crossing distance, spatial genetic model, speciation

A phylogenetic analysis of pollination mode and the evolution of dichogamy in angiosperms.
Risa D. Sargent & Sarah P. Otto — 2004(8) (sargent@zoology.ubc.ca)
Keywords: correlated evolution, dichogamy, Discrete, pollinator, protandry, protogyny

When should faster moving animals have better visual ability? A computational study of Leuckart's law.
Shinsuke Satoi & Yoh Iwasa — 2014(8) (yohiwasa@kyudai.jp)
Keywords: animal behaviour, eye size, Leuckart's law, locomotion, visual acuity.

Unifying quantitative life-history theory and field endocrinology to assess prudent parenthood in a long-lived seabird.
William H. Satterthwaite, Alexander S. Kitaysky, Scott A. Hatch, John F. Piatt & Marc Mangel — 2010(6) (satterth@darwin.ucsc.edu)
Keywords: black-legged kittiwake, CORT-fitness hypothesis, corticosterone, endocrinology, life history, prudent parent

A genotype-distinguishing model of senescence.
Harry D. Saunders — 2009(8) (hsaunders@decisionprocessesinc.com)
Keywords: dynamic systems, Euler-Lotka equation, fecundity trend, genotype variation, intrinsic lifespan, iteroparity, matrix models, mortality trend, semelparity, senescence, survival curve, Williams' Hypothesis

Impacts of starvation on male reproductive success in Tribolium castaneum.
Sonja H. Sbilordo, Vera M. Grazer, Marco Demont & Oliver Y. Martin — 2011(4) (oliver.martin@env.ethz.ch)
Keywords: Coleoptera, condition dependence, fertility, sexual selection, sperm competition

Cyanogenesis in Turnera ulmifolia L. (Turneraceae): II. Developmental expression, heritability and cost of cyanogenesis. 
P.J. Schappert & J.S. Shore — 2000(3)  (philjs@mail.utexas.edu)
Keywords: chemical defence, genetic variation, life-history trade-offs, natural selection, plant growth, reproduction

Life: optimality, evolutionary, and intelligent design?
David Scheel & Thomas L. Vincent — 2009(4) (dscheel@AlaskaPacific.edu)
Keywords: evolutionary design, intelligent design, irreducible complexity, landscapes, optimality design

Spatial and temporal analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of a freshwater ostracod from the high Andean plateau.
Rodrigo Scheihing, Leyla Cardenas, Pedro Labarca & Roberto F. Nespolo — 2011(1) (rsch@cecs.cl)
Keywords: population, molecular markers, gene flow, environmental stochasticity, ostracod, high Andean plateau.

Diversity, productivity and scale in Wisconsin vegetation.
Samuel M. Scheiner & Sharon Jones — 2002(8) (sscheine@nsf.gov)
Keywords: diversity, mean similarity, productivity, scale, species richness, terrestrial vascular plants, Wisconsin

Species richness, species area-curves and Simpson's paradox.
Samuel M. Scheiner, S.B. Cox, M. Willig, G.G. Mittelbach, C. Osenberg & M. Kaspari — 2000(6)  (sscheine@nsf.gov)
Keywords: combining data, productivity, scale, species—area curve, species diversity, species richness

The evolution of informed natal dispersal: inherent versus acquired information.
Solveig Schjřrring — 2002(2) (schjoerring@mpil-ploen.mpg.de)
Keywords: age at maturity, habitat selection, information gathering, philopatry, prospecting

Male adaptive stupidity: Male mating pattern in hybridogenetic frogs.
Dirk Sven Schmeller, Robert O'Hara & Hanna Kokko — 2005(7) (dirk@die-schmellers.de)
Keywords: adaptive decision, hybridogenesis, interspecies conflict, mating behaviour, mating strategy

A trophic polymorphism induced by both predators and prey.
Benedikt R. Schmidt, Nadine Ramer & Josh Van Buskirk — 2006(7) (bschmidt@zool.unizh.ch)
Keywords: inducible defence, morphology, phenotypic plasticity, prey size, resource polymorphism, Triturus

Site fidelity in habitats with contrasting levels of nest predation and brood parasitism.
Kenneth A. Schmidt — 2001(6) (Kenneth.A.Schmidt@williams.edu)
Keywords: brood parasitism, evolutionarily stable strategy, habitat selection, metapopulation, nest predation, site fidelity, songbirds.

Voles competing with mice: differentiating exploitative, interference and apparent competition using patch use theory.
Kenneth A. Schmidt, Robert Manson & David Lewis — 2005(2) (kenneth.schmidt@ttu.edu)
Keywords: apparent competition, competition, ecotone, giving-up density, habitat selection, interference, Microtus, patch use theory, Peromyscus

Unlearned preference for red may facilitate recognition of palatable food in young omnivorous birds.
Veronika Schmidt, & Hinrich Martin Schaefer — 2004(6) (martin.schaefer@biologie.uni-freiburg.de)
Keywords: aposematism, blackcap, frugivory, fruit colour, naďve preferences, plant-animal interactions

Limited adaptive life-history plasticity in a semelparous spider, Stegodyphus lineatus (Eresidae).
Jutta M. Schneider, Mor Salomon & Yael Lubin — 2003(5) (js@gilgamesh.de)
Keywords: brood reduction, plasticity, semelparity, spider, suicidal brood care

Parasitoid sex allocation affects co-evolution of patch selection and stability in host-parasitoid systems.
Sebastian J. Schreiber, Laurel R. Fox & Wayne M. Getz — 2002(5) (sschreib@cc.wwu.edu )
Keywords: co-evolution, host-parasitoid dynamics, parasitoid sex allocation, spatial models

Morphological patterns of sexual selection in the diving beetle Graphoderus liberus.
Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde & Yves Alarie — 2006(5) (aschultehostedde@laurentian.ca)
Keywords: allometry, condition dependence, genitalia, insects

Condition dependence of testis size in small mammals.
Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde, John S. Millar & Graham J. Hickling — 2005(1) (aschultehostedde@laurentian.ca)
Keywords: body condition, ejaculates, rodents, sexual selection, sperm competition

Differences in otolith morphologies between surface- and cave-dwelling populations of Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei, Poeciliidae) reflect adaptations to life in an extreme habitat.
Tanja Schulz-Mirbach, Christoph Stransky, Jürgen Schlickeisen & Bettina Reichenbacher — 2008(4) (t.schulz-mirbach@lrz.uni-muenchen.de)
Keywords: cave fish, hearing adaptation, morphocline, otolith, sulcus morphology

An optimality approach to male and female body sizes in an extremely size-dimorphic cichlid fish.
Dolores Schütz, Geoffrey A. Parker, Michael Taborsky & Tetsu Sato — 2006(8) (Michael.Taborsky@esh.unibe.ch)
Keywords: ecological constraints, ESS model, natural selection, sexual size dimorphism, shell brooding

A test for the parallel co-evolution of male colour and female preference in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).
Amy K. Schwartz & Andrew P. Hendry — 2007(1) (amy.schwartz@mail.mcgill.ca>)
Keywords: adaptation, divergent selection, ecological speciation, guppy, mate choice, predation, preference function, sexual selection

Sexual selection and the detection of ecological speciation.
Amy K. Schwartz & Andrew P. Hendry — 2006(3) (amy.schwartz@mail.mcgill.ca)
Keywords: divergent natural selection, local adaptation, mate choice, parallel evolution, preference function, pre-mating isolation

When ecological isolation breaks down: sexual isolation is an incomplete barrier to hybridization between Rhagoletis species.
Dietmar Schwarz & Bruce A. McPheron — 2007(5) (dxs332@psu.edu)
Keywords: hybridization, invasives, mating behaviour, reproductive barrier, sexual isolation, speciation

Which trees do wild common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) prefer? Problems and solutions in scaling laboratory findings to diet selection in the field.
Nilla J Scrivener, Christopher N Johnson, Ian R Wallis, Midori Takasaki, William J Foley & Andrew K Krockenberger — 2004(1) (Andrew.Krockenberger@jcu.edu.au )
Keywords: diet selection, Eucalyptus, marsupial folivores, plant secondary metabolites.

Adaptations to an aquatic life may be responsible for the reversed sexual size dimorphism in the water spider, Argyroneta aquatica. Dolores Schütz & Michael Taborsky — 2003(1)(Michael.Taborsky@esh.unibe.ch)
Keywords: body size, diving behaviour, locomotion, natural selection, size costs and benefits

DNA parentage analysis reveals inter-annual variation in selection: results from 19 consecutive brood years in steelhead trout.
Todd R. Seamons, Paul Bentzen & Thomas P. Quinn — 2007(3) (seamonst@u.washington.edu)
Keywords: breeding density, genetic parentage analysis, lifetime reproductive success, Oncorhynchus mykiss, selection, sex ratio

Genetic differentiation after founder events: an evaluation of FST estimators with empirical and simulated data.
Kristina M. Sefc, Robert B. Payne & Michael D. Sorenson — 2007(1) (kristina.sefc@uni-graz.at>)
Keywords: bottleneck, FST estimators, microsatellites, population growth, standardized genetic differentiation measure, Vidua

The effect of host starvation on parasitoid brood size in a polyembryonic wasp.
Michal Segoli, Ally R. Harari, Amos Bouskila & Tamar Keasar — 2010(2) (msegoli@ucdavis.edu)
Keywords: brood size, Copidosoma koehleri, host quality, host starvation

The effect of dietary restriction on the lifespan of males in a web-building spider.
Michal Segoli, Yael Lubin & Ally R. Harari — 2007(4) (msegoli@bgu.ac.il)
Keywords: dietary restriction, lifespan, web-building spider

Predator presence suppresses immune function in a larval amphibian.
Sarah A. Seiter — 2011(3) (sseiter@email.unc.edu)
Keywords: immune responses, indirect effects of predators, inducible defences, larval amphibians, natural enemies, plasticity, Rana sylvatica

Patterns of vocal divergence in a group of non-oscine birds (auklets; Alcidae, Charadriiformes).
Sampath S. Seneviratne, Ian L. Jones & Steven M. Carr — 2012(1) (sampath@zoology.ubc.ca)
Keywords: Alcidae, auklets, character reconstruction, display evolution, non-oscine birds, phylogeny, vocalization

Behavioural mechanisms underlying ‘specific’ host manipulation by a trophically transmitted parasite.
Otto Seppälä, Anssi Karvonen & E. Tellervo Valtonen — 2012(1) (otto.seppaelae@eawag.ch)
Keywords: cataracts, Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Oncorhynchus mykiss, parasite–host interactions, transmission, Trematoda

Host manipulation by parasites and risk of non-host predation: is manipulation costly in an eye fluke-fish interaction?
Otto Seppälä, Anssi Karvonen and E. Tellervo Valtonen — 2006(5) (otto.seppaelae@eawag.ch)
Keywords: Diplostomum spathaceum, parasite-host interactions, transmission, Trematoda

Evolution of dispersal in American pika (Ochotona princeps) metapopulations.
Anne Seppänen, Kalle Parvinen & John D. Nagy — 2012(1) (Anne.Seppanen@utu.fi)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, climate change, dispersal, evolutionary suicide, metapopulation, Ochotona princeps

Sex-specific life-history responses to seasonal time constraints in an alpine caddisfly.
Lisa N.S. Shama & Christopher T. Robinson — 2006(1) (lisa.shama@eawag.ch)
Keywords: aquatic insect, hydroperiod, photoperiod, plasticity, protandry, temporary stream, Trichoptera

Trophic niche divergence reduces survival in an omnivorous rodent.
Pei-Jen L. Shaner, Sheng-Hai Wu, Linhua Ke & Shuh-Ji Kao — 2013(8) (pshaner@ntnu.edu.tw)
Keywords: Apodemus semotus, trophic niche, stabilizing selection, stable isotopes

Genetic and environmental contributions to the morphology of lake and stream stickleback: implications for gene flow and reproductive isolation.
Diana M.T.Sharpe, Katja Räsänen, Daniel Berner & Andrew P.Hendry — 2008(6) (andrew.hendry@mcgill.ca)
Keywords: adaptive divergence, common-garden experiment, geometric morphometrics, phenotypic change vector analysis, phenotypic plasticity

Sexual size dimorphism and the relationship between timing of breeding and size-assortative mating in a monogamous, marsh-nesting bird.
David A. Shealer — 2014(1) (david.shealer@loras.edu)
Keywords: assortative pairing, black tern, Chlidonias niger, mate choice, mate retention, morphometry, sexual dimorphism.

Variation in chemical defences of plants may improve the effectiveness of defence.
Angela L. Shelton — 2004(5) (angies@csit.fsu.edu)
Keywords: dynamic programming, glucosinolates, Raphanus sativus, variation

Variable chemical defenses in plants and their effects on herbivore behaviour.
Angela L. Shelton — 2000(2) (angies@cats.ucsc.edu)
Keywords: chemical variation, dynamic state variable model, herbivore choice, herbivory, plant defence theory, secondary metabolites

Distributions of reproductive and somatic cell numbers in diverse Volvox (Chlorophyta) species.
Deborah E. Shelton, Alexey G. Desnitskiy & Richard E. Michod — 2012(6) (dshelton@email.arizona.edu)
Keywords: cellular differentiation, development, eco-devo, evolution, multicellularity, reproductive allocation, robustness, Volvox

Density-independent habitat distribution caused by density-dependent habitat selection.
Georgy Shenbrot, Boris Krasnov & Sergei Burdelov — 2006(7) (shenbrot@bgumail.bgu.ac.il)
Keywords: density-dependence, density-independence, fitness, habitat selection theory, isodar theory

Habitat selection along an environmental gradient: Theoretical models with an example of Negev desert rodents. 
G. Shenbrot & B. Krasnov — 2000(3)  (shenbrot@bgumail.bgu.ac.il)
Keywords: density-dependent habitat selection, habitat selection model, Negev Desert, rodents

Sib-mating does not lead to facultative sex ratio adjustment in the parasitoid wasp, Nasonia vitripennis.
David M. Shuker, Sarah E. Reece, Penelope R. Whitehorn & Stuart A. West — 2004(3) (david.shuker@ed.ac.uk)
Keywords: kin discrimination, local mate competition, Nasonia vitripennis, sex allocation, sex ratio

Evolution of senescence in iteroparous perennial plants.
Jonathan Silvertown, Miguel Franco & Ruben Perez-Ishiwara — 2001(4) (J.Silvertown@open.ac.uk)
Keywords: age at first reproduction, mortality rate, perennial plants, reproductive lifespan, reproductive value, senescence, Weibull function

A dynamical model of two-level selection.
Burton Simon — 2010(5) (Burt.Simon@ucdenver.edu)
Keywords: evolution of cooperation, evolutionary birth/death process, evolutionary dynamics, group selection, MLS1, MLS2, multi-level selection, social evolution

Numerical solutions and animations of group selection dynamics.
Burton Simon & Aaron Nielsen — 2012(6) (burt.simon@ucdenver.edu)
Keywords: evolutionary birth–death process, group extinction, group fissioning, multi-level selection, population dynamics

Adaptive variation among Drosophila species in their circadian rhythms.
Angela Simunovic & John Jaenike — 2006(5) (joja@mail.rochester.edu)
Keywords: desiccation stress, independent contrasts, latitudinal variation, mycophagous insects

The pattern of dioecy in terrestrial, temperate plant succession.
Jordan P. Sinclair, Jacob L. Korte & D. Carl Freeman — 2013(5) (Al8577@wayne.edu)
Keywords: dioecy, dispersal, inbreeding avoidance, plant mating systems, succession

Sympatric diversification influenced by ecological opportunity and historical contingency in a young species lineage of whitefish.
Anna Siwertsson, Rune Knudsen, Kimmo K. Kahilainen, Kim Prćbel, Raul Primicerio & Per-Arne Amundsen — 2010(8) (anna.siwertsson@uit.no)
Keywords: Fennoscandia, phenotypic divergence, post-glacial fish, salmonid, speciation continuum

Potential selection for female choice in Viola tricolor.
Io Skogsmyr & Ĺsa Lankinen — 2000(8) (io.skogsmyr@teorekol.lu.se)
Keywords: good genes, mate choice, maternal provisioning, pollen competition, pollen tube growth rate, sexual selection

Selection on pollen competitive ability in relation to stochastic factors influencing pollen deposition.
Io Skogsmyr & Ĺ. Lankinen — 1999(8) (io.skogsmyr@teorekol.Lu.se)
Keywords: mate choice, non-random mating, plants, pollen tube growth rate, sexual selection, Viola tricolor

My complete works and more.
Lawrence B. Slobodkin — 2009(3) (bzLL@life.bio.sunysb.edu)
Keywords: history of ecology, importance of ecology, importance of natural history, ecological education, graduate student independence, research collaboration, interdisciplinary work, population dynamics, ecological energetics, ecological efficiency, limits to population size, species diversity, ecological theory, evolutionary games, evolutionary persistence, value of laboratory experiments in ecology, hydra, coelenterates, Daphnia, cladocerans, scientific dogma

The good, the bad and the reified.
L. B. Slobodkin — 2001(1) (bzll@life.bio.sunysb.edu)
Keywords: alien species, community aeroplane, ecological efficiency, 'good' and 'bad' species, logistic equation, reification

Inferring macro-evolutionary patterns using an adaptive peak model of evolution.
Jeroen B. Smaers & Lucio Vinicius — 2009(7) (jbs32@cam.ac.uk)
Keywords: adaptation, adaptive peak, ancestral reconstruction, Brownian motion, comparative method, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck, phylogenetic analysis

Senior and junior nestlings in asynchronous bluethroat broods differ in their effectiveness of begging.
Per T. Smiseth & Trond Amundsen — 2002(8) (per.t.smiseth@man.ac.uk )
Keywords: asynchronous hatching, food distribution, nestling begging, sibling competition, signalling of need

Correlated evolution of colony defense and social structure: a comparative analysis in eusocial wasps.
Adam R. Smith, Sean O'Donnell & Robert L. Jeanne — 2001(3) (arsmith@u.washington.edu)  
Keywords: ant predation, correlated evolution, independent-founding, social behaviour, swarm-founding, sternal glands

Pathogen-mediated selection for MHC variability in wild zebrafish.
Carl Smith, Markéta Ondračková, Rowena Spence, Sally Adams, Donna S. Betts & Eamonn Mallon — 2011(6) (cs101@st-andrews.ac.uk)
Keywords: digenean, frequency-dependent selection, heterozygote advantage, major histocompatibility complex, metazoan parasite, pathogen-driven selection

The potential additive and non-additive benefits of mate choice in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).
Carl Smith & Rowena Spence — 2013(3) (cs101@st-andrews.ac.uk)
Keywords: additive genetic benefit, genetic compatibility, good genes, major histocompatibility complex, mating system, non-additive genetic benefit, olfactory cues, sexual selection, teleost, stickleback

Evolutionarily stable dispersal with pattern formation in a mutualist-antagonist system.
Curtis A. Smith & William G. Wilson — 2007(6) (ecosmith@gmail.com)
Keywords: disperse, evolutionarily stable state, heterogeneity, host-parasitoid, individual-based simulation, mathematical model, metapopulation dynamics, obligate mutualism, patches

Fitness trade-offs select for semelparous reproduction in an extreme environment.
Felisa A. Smith & Eric L. Charnov — 2001(5) (fasmith@unm.edu)
Keywords: Bergmann's rule, Death Valley, iteroparity, life-history trade-offs, Neotoma, temperature, woodrat.

Novel predator-prey interactions: is resistance futile?
Jennifer E. Smith, Christopher J. Whelan, Steven J. Taylor, Michael L. Denight & Mike M. Stake — 2007(3) (whelanc@uic.edu)
Keywords: behavioural strategies, invasive species, life histories, predator-prey, Solenopsis invicta, Vireo atricapilla

Species diversity gradients in relation to geological history in North American freshwater fishes.
Gerald R. Smith, Catherine Badgley, Thomas P. Eiting & Peter S. Larson — 2010(6) (grsmith@umich.edu)
Keywords: discharge variation, elevation, extinction rate, speciation rate, stability, tectonics

On the measurement of beta diversity: an analog of the species–area relation for point sources.
Krister T. Smith — 2008(7) (krister.smith@senckenberg.de)
Keywords: Breeding Bird Survey, distance, fossil record, macroecology, paleoecology, sample size, similarity

Identification of trade-offs underlying the primary strategies of plants.
Matthew J. Smith & Richard M. Sibly — 2008(1) (m.j.smith@ma.hw.ac.uk)
Keywords: evolution, life history, strategy, trade-offs

Occupation of environmental and morphological space: climatic niche and skull shape in Neotoma woodrats.
Jorge Soberón & David Martínez-Gordillo — 2012(4) (jsoberon@ku.edu)
Keywords: fundamental niche, geometric morphometry, Neotoma, niche conservatism, North America, realized niche, skull

Opportunity for some, extinction for others: the fate of tetrapods in the Anthropocene.
Katherine A. Solari, Hannah K. Frank, Luke O. Frishkoff, Jeremy L. Hsu, Melissa E. Kemp, Alexis M. Mychajliw & Elizabeth A. Hadly — 2016(6) (ksolari@stanford.edu)
Keywords: climate change, evolutionary history, exploitation, generalism, genetic diversity, habitat change, invasive species, plasticity, pollution.

Interactions between a brood parasite and its host in relation to parasitism and immune defence. 
Juan José Soler, A. P. Moller, M. Soler, and J. G. Martinez — 1999(2)  
Keywords: brood parasitism, Clamator glandarius, competition, haematocrit, leukocytes, Leucocytozoon, Pica pica, T-cell response

Environmental, genetic and maternal components of immunocompetence of nestling pied flycatchers from a cross-fostering study.
Juan José Soler, Juan Moreno & Jaime Potti — 2003(2) (jsoler@eeza.csic.es)
Keywords: environmental factors, Ficedula hypoleuca, genetic factors, immune response, maternal effects, pied flycatcher

Demography and evolution of pure hybridogenetic frog (Rana esculenta) populations.
Christian Som & Heinz-Ulrich Reyer — 2006(7) (ulireyer@zool.unizh.ch)
Keywords: ecological modelling, evolutionary unit, hybridogenesis, mate choice, ploidy, population dynamics, speciation

Temporal patterns of resource usage in an ecological model for sexual reproduction and geographic parthenogenesis.
Yixian Song, Barbara Drossel & Stefan Scheu — 2010(7) (yixian@fkp.tu-darmstadt.de)
Keywords: genetic variance, Red Queen, resource dynamics, spatial variation, tangled bank

Natural selection on hatchling body size and mass in two environments in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara).
G. Sorci and J. Clobert — 1999(3)  
Keywords: body mass, body size, environment, Lacerta vivipara, natural selection, survival

Sexual size dimorphism and the strength of sexual selection in mammals and birds.
Carl D. Soulsbury, Matti Kervinen & Christophe Lebigre — 2014(1) (csoulsbury@lincoln.ac.uk)
Keywords: lekking, mating system, monogamy, opportunity for sexual selection, polyandry, polygyny, sexual dimorphism.

Morphological variation of an ornament expressed in both sexes of the mosquito Sabethes cyaneus.
Sandra H. South & Göran Arnqvist — 2009(1) (sandra.south@ebc.uu.se )
Keywords: allometry, Diptera, elliptic Fourier analysis, sexual selection, signal, variation

Seasonal resource oscillations maintain diversity in bacterial microcosms.
Christine C. Spencer, Gerda Saxer, Michael Travisano & Michael Doebeli — 2007(5) (cspencer@eeb.utoronto.ca)
Keywords: ecological diversification, environmental variability, frequency dependence, seasonality, seasonal resource availability, trade-off

Should I stay or should I go? Optimal parental care decisions of a nest-guarding fish.
Geoffrey B. Steinhart, Erin S. Dunlop, Mark S. Ridgway & Elizabeth A. Marschall — 2008(3) (gsteinhart@lssu.edu)
Keywords: dynamic programming, expected fitness, nest abandonment, nest defence, parental care, round goby, smallmouth bass

Ageing and total quality management: extending the reliability metaphor for longevity.
David Steinsaltz & Lloyd Goldwasser — 2006(8) (steinsaltz@mast.queensu.ca)
Keywords: ageing, damage segregation, evolutionary models of senescence, optimization, reliability models

Mitochondrial DNA reveals monophyly of New Zealand's Gobiomorphus (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eleotridae) amongst a morphological complex.
Mark I. Stevens & Brendan J. Hicks — 2009(1) (Stevens.Mark@saugov.sa.gov.au)
Keywords: amphidromy, Gobiomorphus, habitat fragmentation, island systems, mtDNA (Cyt-b), species radiation

Functional morphology meets macroecology: size and shape distributions of New World bats.
Richard D. Stevens — 2005(6) (rstevens@biology.lsu.edu)
Keywords: body-size distribution, functional morphology, morphometrics, principal components analysis, shape distribution, size-shape decomposition

Seasonal adjustment of sex ratio and offspring masculinity by female deer mice is inconsistent with the local resource competition hypothesis.
Frances E.C. Stewart, Ronald J. Brooks & Andrew G. McAdam — 2014(2) (fecstewart@gmail.com)
Keywords: ano-genital distance, sex ratio manipulation, masculinity, Peromyscus, population density, Rodentia

Individual fluctuating asymmetry in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) persists across moults, but is not heritable and not related to fitness.
Leif Christian Stige, Tore Slagsvold & Leif Asbjřrn Vřllestad — 2005(3) (leif.stige@u-bourgogne.fr)
Keywords: developmental stability, fitness, fluctuating asymmetry, heritability, ontogeny

Does a negative genetic correlation between wing morph and early fecundity imply a functional constraint in Gryllus firmus?
Gray Stirling, Daphne J. Fairbairn, Shane Jensen & Derek A. Roff — 2001(2) (stirling@bio1.lan.mcgill.ca)  
Keywords: correlated response, flight capability, insects, life-history trade-off, phenotypic costs

The foraging response of gerbils to a gradient of owl numbers.
Justin R. St. Juliana, Burt P. Kotler, Joel S. Brown, Shomen Mukherjee & Amos Bouskila — 2011(8) (jrstjuliana@gmail.com))
Keywords: foraging, foraging theory, gerbil, giving-up density, multiple predators, optimal foraging, owl, prey behaviour, predator, predation

Male-killing Wolbachia and male mate choice: a test with Drosophila innubila.
Julie Sullivan & John Jaenike — 2006(1) (joja@mail.rochester.edu)
Keywords: Drosophila innubila, endosymbionts, male-killing, Wolbachia, sexual selection, sperm depletion

Maintenance of sociality in a communal caterpillar, Eucheira socialis westwoodi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).
Jia J. Sun & Dessie L. A. Underwood — 2011(6) (dlunderw@csulb.edu)
Keywords: Eucheira socialis westwoodi, foraging, gregariousness, kin selection, oviposition preference, sex-biased mortality, sociality

Intraspecific competition affects the strength of individual specialization: an optimal diet theory method.
Richard Svanbäck & Daniel I. Bolnick — 2005(7) (svanback@zoology.ubc.ca)
Keywords: density dependence, frequency dependence, individual specialization, inter-individual variation, intra-population variation, niche breadth

Genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity: causes of morphological and dietary variation in Eurasian perch.
Richard Svanbäck & Peter Eklöv — 2006(1) (svanback@zoology.ubc.ca)
Keywords: adaptive variation, genetic variation, perch, phenotypic plasticity, trophic polymorphism

Replicated host-race formation in bogus yucca moths: genetic and ecological divergence of Prodoxus quinquepunctellus on yucca hosts.
Glenn P. Svensson, David M. Althoff & Olle Pellmyr — 2005(8) (Glenn.Svensson@ekol.lu.se)
Keywords: diversification, host-race formation, mitochondrial DNA, ovipositor morphology, phenology, Prodoxidae, Yucca

Impact of differential parasitoid attack on the number of chambers in multilocular galls of two closely related gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).
K. Tabuchi & H. Amano — 2004(5) (tabuchik@graduate.chiba-u.jp)
Keywords: Aquifoliaceae, Asteralobia, clutch size, gall midge, Ilex, parasitoid

Role of gap dynamics in the evolution of masting of trees.
Yuuya Tachiki & Yoh Iwasa — 2008(6) (yiwasscb@mbox.nc.kyushu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: finite pairwise invasibility plot, games in finite population, gap dynamics, masting, mast seeding

Are recommendations for conservation informed by estimates of genetic divergence?
Heather R. Taft & Derek A. Roff — 2014(1) (derek.roff@ucr.edu)
Keywords: conservation genetics, FST, genetic divergence, management recommendation, neutral markers, population genetics.

Do male orangutans play a hawk-dove game?
Kei-ichi Tainaka, Jin Yoshimura & Michael L. Rosenzweig — 2007(6) (tainaka@sys.eng.shizuoka.ac.jp)
Keywords: alternative mating tactics, arrested adults, density effect, hawk-dove game, male dimorphism, orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus

A mathematical analysis of leaf longevity of trees under seasonally varying temperatures, based on a cost-benefit model.
Takenori Takada, Kihachiro Kikuzawa & Noboru Fujita — 2006(4) (takada@ees.hokudai.ac.jp)
Keywords: cost-benefit model, deciduous, evergreen, leaf longevity, mathematical model, optimal strategy, temperature

Effects of sib-competition on female reproductive success in Salvia lutescens Koidz. var. crenata.
Kunihiko Takahashi, Takashi T. Makino & Satoki Sakai — 2005(8) (sakai@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp)
Keywords: fitness gain curve, local sib-seedling density, quality of surviving progeny, seedling competition

Coevolutionary dynamics of egg appearance in avian brood parasitism.
Fugo Takasu — 2003(3) (takasu@ics.nara-wu.ac.jp)
Keywords: arms race, avian brood parasitism, co-evolution, egg appearance, ideal free evolution, quantitative trait

Recombination and epistasis facilitate introgressive hybridization across reproductively isolated populations: a gamete-based simulation.
Yoshinari Tanaka — 2010(4) (ytanaka@nies.go.jp)
Keywords: Dobzhansky-Mueller model, epistasis, gamete-based model, introgressive hybridization, multi-locus underdominance, post-zygotic isolation

Dead and alive parasites: sexual ornaments signal resistance in the male fish, Rutilus rutilus.
Jouni Taskinen & Raine Kortet — 2002(6) (jtaskine@cc.jyu.fi)
Keywords: co-evolution, expression of secondary sexual characters, Hamilton and Zuk, sexual selection

Cooperation maintained by fitness adjustment.
Christine Taylor, Janet Chen & Yoh Iwasa — 2007(6) (yiwasscb@mbox.nc.kyushu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: distribution of cooperation level, envy, evolution of cooperation, fitness adjustment, punishment

Unbiased sex ratio among nestling echo parakeets Psittacula eques.
Tiawanna D Taylor & David T Parkin — 2008(6) (tiawannataylor@gmail.com)
Keywords: conservation management, echo parakeet, Psittacula eques, sex ratio

Adaptive plasticity in stressful environments: acidity constrains inducible defences in Rana arvalis.
Celine Teplitsky, Katja Räsänen & Anssi Laurila — 2007(3) (celine.teplitsky@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: acidification, adaptive plasticity, amphibians, inducible defences, multiple stressors, stress tolerance

When can competition for resources lead to ecological equivalence?
Casey P. terHorst, Thomas E. Miller & Eric Powell — 2010(7) (casey.terhorst@kbs.msu.edu)
Keywords: character displacement, competitive exclusion, evolution, evolvability, extinction, functional groups, neutral theory, niche partitioning, theoretical

The impact of environmental factors on human life history evolution: an optimization modelling and data analysis study.
Anatoly T. Teriokhin, F. Thomas, E.V. Budilova & J.F. Guégan — 2003(8) (ter@mat.bio.msu.su)
Keywords: age at marriage, age at maturity, availability of food, birth weight, demographic transition, dynamic programming, fertility, human life-history evolution, infection stresses, life expectancy, optimal energy allocation, size at maturity

Inferring predator identity from skeletal damage of small-mammal prey remains.
Rebecca C. Terry — 2007(2) (rcterry@uchicago.edu)
Keywords: Homestead Cave (Utah), discriminant function analysis, paleoecology, predation, principal components analysis, skeletal damage patterns, small mammals, taphonomy

Robustness of the spatial insurance effects of biodiversity to habitat loss.
Patrick L. Thompson, Bronwyn Rayfield & Andrew Gonzalez — 2014(6) (gonzandrew@gmail.com)
Keywords: centrality, connectivity, dispersal, ecosystem function, environmental change, extinction, habitat fragmentation, metacommunity, network, stability

The spatial scale of pathogen dispersal: Consequences for disease dynamics and persistence. 
Peter H. Thrall & Jeremy J. Burdon — 1999(6) (thrall@pi.csiro.au
Keywords: endemic, epidemic, metapopulation, population asynchrony

Dynamics of fish shoals: identifying key decision rules.
Joseph H. Tien, Simon A. Levin & Daniel I. Rubenstein — 2004(4) (dir@princeton.edu)Keywords: decision making, field study, fish shoal, model, proximate mechanisms, schooling

Competitive ability of parasitized Drosophila larvae.
N.S.H. Tien, D. Boyle, A. Kraaijeveld & H.C.J. Godfray — 2001(6) ( a.kraayeveld@ic.ac.uk)
Keywords: Asobara tabida, competitive ability, cost of resistance, Drosophila melanogaster, Leptopilina heterotoma, parasitoid

The heritability of defence and life-history traits in the two-spotted spider mite.
Nicola S.H. Tien, M.W. Sabelis & M. Egas — 2009(8) (N.S.H.Tien@uva.nl)
Keywords: elimination-selection hypothesis, Tetranychus urticae, trade-off, variance compounding

Induction and herbivore mobility affect the evolutionary escalation of plant defense.
Peter Tiffin, Brian D. Inouye & Nora Underwood — 2006(2) (ptiffin@umn.edu)
Keywords: co-evolution, constitutive, host preference, induced resistance, parasite, pathogens

The number of competitors providing pollen on a stigma strongly influences intraspecific pollen aperture number variation.
Irčne Till-Bottraud, P-H. Gouyon, D.L. Venable & B. Godelle — 2001(2) (irene.till@ujf-grenoble.fr)  
Keywords: game theory, heteromorphism, pollen competition, polymorphism, soft selection, two-level frequency dependence

Learning to be different: acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence and environmental variation can cause behaviourally-mediated foraging specializations.
M. Tim Tinker, Marc Mangel & James A. Estes — 2009(6) (tinker@biology.ucsc.edu)
Keywords: culture, dynamic, foraging, individual, model, specialization

Compensatory behaviour in response to sulfide-induced hypoxia affects time budgets, feeding efficiency, and predation risk.
Michael Tobler, Ruediger W. Riesch, Courtney M. Tobler & Martin Plath — 2009(6) (michi.tobler@gmail.com)
Keywords: aquatic surface respiration, behavioural trade-off, Belostoma, cavefish, energy limitation, hydrogen sulphide, Poecilia, Poeciliidae

Gamete behaviours and the evolution of 'marked anisogamy': reproductive strategies and sexual dimorphism in Bryopsidales marine green algae.
Tatsuya Togashi, Masaru Nagisa, Tatsuo Miyazaki, Jin Yoshimura, John L. Bartelt & Paul Alan Cox — 2006(4) (togashi@faculty.chiba-u.jp)
Keywords: anisogamy, gamete behaviour, marine green algae, pheromonal attraction, phototaxis

Evaluating neutrality and escalation hypothesis in brachiopod communities from shallow, high-productivity habitats.
Adam Tomašových — 2008(5) (tomasovych@uchicago.edu)
Keywords: Brachiopoda, co-occurrence, escalation, marine community ecology, neutral theory, niche

Group size, energy budgets and population dynamic complexity.
Karen E. Trainor & Thomas Caraco — 2006(7) (caraco@albany.edu)
Keywords: chaos, dynamic complexity, group size, starvation probability

Power formula for Cope's rule.
Jerzy Trammer — 2002(1) (trammer@geo.uw.edu.pl)
Keywords: allometry, body size, Cope's rule, evolutionary size change

Individual variation, gametophytic competition and style length: does size affect paternity?
Steven E. Travers & Katriona Shea — 2001(6) (set10@psu.edu)
Keywords: flower morphology, gametophytic competition, sexual selection, style length

Dispersal evolution during invasions.
Justin M. J. Travis & Calvin Dytham — 2002(8) (jmjt@ceh.ac.uk)
Keywords: Allee effect, climate change, exotic species, migration, range expansion, selection

Adaptation and propagule pressure determine invasion dynamics: insights from a spatially explicit model for sexually reproducing species.
Justin M. J. Travis, M. Hammershřj & C. Stephenson — 2005(1) (jmjt@ceh.ac.uk)
Keywords: genetics, introduced species, invasion, lattice model, patch occupancy, simulation

Predator-induced plasticity and morphological trade-offs in latitudinally-separated populations of Littorina obtusata.
Geoffrey Trussell — 2000(6) (geoffrey_trussell@brown.edu)
Keywords: Carcinus maenas, geographic variation, Gulf of Maine, Littorina obtusata, natural selection, phenotypic plasticity, trade-offs

Sex allocation bias in hermaphroditic plants: effects of local competition and seed dormancy.
Takashi Tsuchimatsu, Satoki Sakai and Motomi Ito — 2006(5) (t-tsu3@dolphin.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp)
Keywords: dispersal, dormancy, hermaphroditic plants, local mate competition, local resource competition, sex allocation

Biomass versus biodiversity: the relative contribution of population attributes to consumer nutrient loading in aquatic systems.
Quenton M. Tuckett, Kevin S. Simon, Jasmine E. Saros, Stephen M. Coghlan Jr. & Michael T. Kinnison — 2014(8) (qtuckett@ufl.edu)
Keywords: bioenergetics, biomass, ecological stoichiometry, harvest, nutrient excretion.

Adaptive phenotypic differentiation of courtship in response to recent anthropogenic disturbance.
Ulla Tuomainen, Emilia Sylvin & Ulrika Candolin — 2011(7) (ulla.tuomainen@helsinki.fi)
Keywords: environmental change, mate choice, parallel divergence, phenotypic plasticity, sexual selection

Experimental assessment of the impact of rapid evolution on population dynamics.
Martin M. Turcotte, David N. Reznick & J. Daniel Hare — 2011(2) (mart.turcotte@gmail.com)
Keywords: aphids, clonal selection, contemporary evolution, eco-evolutionary dynamics, ecological genetics, evolution enlightened management, experimental evolution, population growth rate

Evolution of 'maleness' and outcrossing in a population of the self-fertilizing killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus.
Bruce J. Turner, Michael T. Fisher, D. Scott Taylor, William P. Davis & Bambi L. Jarrett — 2006(8) (fishgen@vt.edu)
Keywords: Atherinomorpha, clonal reproduction, Cyprinodontiformes, hermaphroditism, mating system, Rivulidae, Rivulus

Variation in the propensity to diversify in experimental populations of Escherichia coli: consequences for adaptive radiation.
Jabus Tyerman & Michael Doebeli — 2010(7) (jabustyerman@gmail.com)
Keywords: adaptive radiation, character displacement, diversification, Escherichia coli, growth curve analysis, metabolism, mutational bias

Why are salmon eggs red? Egg carotenoids and early life survival of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).
Selene T. Tyndale, Robert J. Letcher, John W. Heath & Daniel D. Heath — 2008(8) (dheath@uwindsor.ca)
Keywords: carotenoid, Chinook salmon, disease resistance, eggs, fitness, immune function, incubation survival, trade-off

Optimum resource allocation in the plant-fungus symbiosis for an exponentially growing system.
Kouki Uchinomiya & Yoh Iwasa — 2014(5) (uchinomiya@bio-math10.biology.kyushu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: allocation of resources, exponential growth, plant-fungus interaction

Burrowing in the bark or in the sapwood: a dynamic game between a mother and her offspring.
Kouki Uchinomiya & Yoh Iwasa — 2011(6) (yohiwasa@kyudai.jp)
Keywords: ambrosia beetle, bark beetle, dynamic game, evolutionarily stable strategy, wood-burrowing beetles

ESS distribution of display duration in animal contests to assess an opponent before fighting or fleeing.
Takashi Uehara, Yoh Iwasa & Hisashi Ohtsuki — 2007(3) (yiwasscb@mbox.nc.kyushu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords:assessment, contest behaviour, display duration, evolutionarily stable state

Modeling dimensionality in species abundance distributions: description and evaluation of the Gambin model.
Karl I. Ugland, P. John D. Lambshead, Brian McGill, John S. Gray, Niall O'Dea, Richard J. Ladle, Robert J. Whittaker — 2007(2) (robert.whittaker@ouce.ox.ac.uk)
Keywords: Gambin model, Gamma distribution, lognormal distribution, log-series distribution, macroecology, species abundance distribution

Food and sex-specific growth strategies in a spider.
Gabriele Uhl, Sandra Schmitt, Martin A. Schäfer & Wolf Blanckenhorn — 2004(4) (g.uhl@uni-bonn.de)Keywords: body size, development time, environmental stress, food limitation, genetic correlation, heritability, life history, sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism

A male-biased primary sex ratio and larval mortality in Eucheiria socialis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). 
Dessie L. Underwood & A. Shapiro — 1999(6) (DLUnderw@csulb.edu
Keywords: Lepidoptera, Mexico, Pieridae, sex-based mortality, sex ratio

Evolution of dwarf males and a variety of sexual modes in barnacles: an ESS approach.
Satoru Urano, Sachi Yamaguchi, Shigeyuki Yamato, Satoshi Takahashi & Yoichi Yusa — 2009(5) (uranos-5231@kej.biglobe.ne.jp)
Keywords: androdioecy, hermaphrodite, mating system, sex ratio, sex allocation, sperm competition

Why do bilaterally symmetrical flowers orient vertically? Flower orientation influences pollinator landing behaviour.
Atushi Ushimaru & Fujio Hyodo — 2005(1) (ushimaru@chikyu.ac.jp)
Keywords: Commelina communis, field experiment, flower orientation, pollinator landing, zygomorphic flower

Variation in floral organ size depends on function: a test with Commelina communis, an andromonoecious species.
Atushi Ushimaru, Tomoyuki Itagaki & Hiroshi S. Ishii — 2003(4) (ushimaru@chikyu.ac.jp)
Keywords: andromonoecy, Commelina, phenotypic size variation, pollinator-mediated stabilizing selection

The evolution of flower allometry in selfing species.
Atushi Ushimaru & Kensuke Nakata — 2002(8) (ushimaru@chikyu.ac.jp)
Keywords: comparative study, filament-stigma correlation, flower allometry, outcrossing, selfing

Developing the capacity to monitor climate change impacts in Mediterranean estuaries.
Susan L Ustin, Maria J. Santos, Erin L. Hestir, Shruti Khanna, Angeles Casas & Jonathan Greenberg — 2014(6) (slustin@ucdavis.edu)
Keywords: canopy structure, hyperspectral remote sensing, imaging spectroscopy, mapping invasive and native aquatic plant species

Fitness consequences of female preference for male pheromones in Tenebrio molitor.
Anssi Vainikka, Otto Seppälä, Katja Löytynoja & Markus J. Rantala — 2006(5) (ansvain@cc.jyu.fi)
Keywords: fitness, good genes, handicap, lifespan, sexual conflict

Nest-site philopatry and the evolution of temperature-dependent sex determination.
Nicole Valenzuela & Frederic J. Janzen — 2001(7) (nvalenzu@iastate.edu) Keywords: Chrysemys picta, natal homing, nest-site philopatry, Reinhold hypothesis, reptiles, temperature-dependent sex determination

The presence of other fish species affects speciation in threespine sticklebacks.
Steven M. Vamosi — 2003(5) (vamosi@zoo.utoronto.ca)
Keywords: competition, diversification, predation, speciation, sticklebacks, sympatry

Direct effects of larval competition on development time and fecundity in seed beetles.
Steven M. Vamosi & Terra L. Lesack — 2007(7) (smvamosi@ucalgary.ca)
Keywords: Callosobruchus, development time, fecundity, intraspecific competition, longevity

Endless tests: guidelines for analyzing non-nested sister-group comparisons.
Steven M. Vamosi & Jana C. Vamosi — 2005(4) (smvamosi@ucalgary.ca)
Keywords: diversification, key innovation, sister-group comparison, Slowinski-Guyer test

Endless tests: An addendum.2e0854" size= -1>
Steven M. Vamosi & Jana C. Vamosi — 2007(4) (smvamosi@ucalgary.ca)

Foraging ecology of North American tree squirrels on cacheable and less cacheable foods: a comparison of two urban habitats.
Marius van der Merwe, Anna M. Burke & Joel S. Brown — 2007(4) (duisendpoot@yahoo.com)
Keywords: food caching, foraging ecology, predation risk, Sciurus, urban ecology

Three evolutionary hypotheses for the hump-shaped productivity-diversity curve.
Mark A. Vandermuelen, André J. Hudson & Sam Scheiner — 2001(4) (sscheine@nsf.gov)  
Keywords: diversity, extinction, hump-shaped curve, population size, productivity, speciation

Causes of sexual dimorphism in performance traits: a comparative approach.
Raoul Van Damme, P. Entin, B. Vanhooydonck & A. Herrel — 2008(2) (raoul.vandamme@ua.ac.be)
Keywords: fecundity, natural selection, sexual selection, territoriality, whole-animal performance

Lack of genetic variation of developmental instability in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) wing and tarsus.
Stefan Van Dongen & Wolfgang Forstmeier — 2012(3) (stefan.vandongen@ua.ac.be)
Keywords: Bayesian analysis, developmental instability, evolvability, fluctuating asymmetry, genetic variation

Sexual dimorphism or evolutionary branching?
Tom J. M. Van Dooren, M. Durinx & I. Demon — 2004(6) (vdooren@rulsfb.leidenuniv.nl)
Keywords: dominance evolution, ecological polymorphism, evolutionary branching, sexual dimorphism, sympatric speciation

The evolutionary relationships between body shape and habitat use in lacertid lizards. 
Bieke Vanhooydonck & R. Van Damme — 1999(7) (vhooyd@uia.ua.ac.be
Keywords: adaptation, ecomorphology, habitat use, Lacertidae, phylogenetic analysis

Local extinctions in flocking birds in Amazonian forest fragments.
Kyle S. Van Houtan, Stuart L. Pimm, Richard O. Bierregaard Jr., Thomas E. Lovejoy & Philip C. Stouffer — 2006(1) (stuartpimm@aol.com)
Keywords: BDFFP, correlates of extinction, flocking propensity, fragmentation, understory flocks

The effects of maternal salinity and seed environment on germination and growth in Iris hexagona.
Peter A. Van Zandt & Susan Mopper — 2004(6) (vanzandt@biology2.wustl.edu)
Keywords: adaptive maternal effects, Louisiana, Marsh Island, saline marsh, salinity stress, survival analysis

Interspecific variation in seed mass and the coexistence of conifer species: A null model test. 
Joseph A. Veech, David A. Charlet & Stephen H. Jenkins — 2000(3)  (jv27@txstate.edu)
Keywords: conifer, Great Basin, null model, seed size variation

anyFish: an open-source software to generate animated fish models for behavioural studies.
Thor Veen, Spencer J. Ingley, Rongfeng Cui, Jon Simpson, Mohammad Rahmani Asl, Ji Zhang, Trisha Butkowski, Wen Li, Chelsea Hash, Jerald B. Johnson, Wei Yan & Gil G. Rosenthal — 2013(3) (veen@biodiversity.ubc.ca)
Keywords: communication, computer animation, Gasterosteus, playback, stickleback, visual signals

Detecting a difference in reaction norms for size and time at maturation: pheromone strains of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis: Lepidoptera, Crambidae).
Helen Vellau, Ene Leppik, Brigitte Frerot & Toomas Tammaru — 2013(5) (helen.vellau@ut.ee)
Keywords: Artemisia vulgaris, body size, evolution, growth rate, host race, insect, Ostrinia nubilalis, phenology, Zea mays

Allocation under multiple resource constraints.
D. Lawrence Venable & David G. Lloyd — 2004(8) (venable@email.arizona.edu)
Keywords: carbon, currency problem, evolutionarily stable strategy, life histories, nitrogen, resource limitation, sex allocation

Ecological avalanches and the two kinds of extinction.
Geerat J. Vermeij — 2004(3) (vermeij@geology.ucdavis.edu)
Keywords: cascades, extinction, invasion, palaeontology

Are gregarious red-black shieldbugs Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), really aposematic? An experimental approach.
Petr Veselý, Silvie Veselá, Roman Fuchs And Jan Zrzavý — 2006(5) (petr-vesely@seznam.cz)
Keywords: disruptive coloration, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, warning coloration

Spite, egotism, population stability, and resource conservation.
William L. Vickery & Joel S. Brown — 2009(2) (squirrel@uic.edu)
Keywords: altruism, egotism, natural selection, population size, population stability, resource conservation, spite

How an engineer was drawn to the study of evolutionary games.
Tom Vincent — 2009(2)

Publications of Thomas L. Vincent

Thomas L. Vincent: a game theorist for all seasons.
Tania L.S. Vincent & Joel S. Brown — 2009(2)

Predicting relative abundance using evolutionary game theory.
Tania L.S. Vincent and Thomas L. Vincent — 2009(2) (tvincent@alaskapacific.edu)
Keywords: community assembly, competition co-evolution, Darwin?s finches, evolutionary games, Geospiza, relative abundance

Body size, diet and sociality influence the species richness of parasitic worms in anthropoid primates.
Nicholas D. Vitone, Sonia M. Altizer, & Charles L. Nunn — 2004(2) (saltize@emory.edu)
Keywords: comparative study, helminths, nematodes, parasite species richness, parasitic worms, primates

Influence of anthropogenic disturbance on the number and composition of plant species in sparsely populated areas: a case study of Udomlya district (Tver region, European Russia).
Polina A. Volkova, Liudmila A. Abramova, Maksim Yu. Grigoryan, Maria O. Ivanova, Elizaveta K. Sekretova & Nikita P. Tikhomirov — 2016(5) (avolkov@orc.ru)
Keywords: plant species diversity, plant richness, invasive species, anthropogenic disturbance, non-native species, floristic composition, Udomlya district, Tver region, Russia

Validation of daily growth increments in otoliths to age threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).
Frank A. von Hippel, Lauren C. Smayda, Christian E. Zimmerman & Michael A. Bell — 2013(8) (favonhippel@uaa.alaska.edu)
Keywords: otolith, sagitta, daily growth increments, age determination

The ninespine stickleback as a model organism in arctic ecotoxicology.
Frank A. von Hippel, E. Jamie Trammell, Juha Merilä Matthew B. Sanders, Tamar Schwarz, John H. Postlethwait, Tom A. Titus, C. Loren Buck & Ioanna Katsiadaki — 2016(3) (Frank.vonHippel@nau.edu)
Keywords: biomonitoring, endocrine disruption, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Pungitius pungitius, sentinel species, stickleback, vitellogenin

Interacting effects of microsite quality, plasticity, and dispersal distance from the parental site on fitness in a natural population of Impatiens capensis.
Eric J. von Wettberg, Heidrun Huber & Johanna Schmitt — 2005(4) (Eric.vonWettberg@fiu.edu)
Keywords: environmental quality, phenotypic plasticity, shade avoidance, spatial autocorrelation

How anthocyanin mutants respond to stress: the need to distinguish between stress tolerance and maximal vigor.
Eric J. von Wettberg, Maureen L. Stanton & Justen B. Whittall — 2010(4) (eric.vonwettberg@fiu.edu)
Keywords: abiotic stress tolerance, anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, flavonols, mutants, trade-offs, vigour

Genetic variation in the primary sex ratio in populations of the intertidal copepod, Tigriopus californicus, is widespread on Vancouver Island.
Maarten J. Voordouw, Gabe Stebbins, H. Eve Robinson, Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot, Thierry Rigaud & Bradley R. Anholt — 2008(7) (mjvoordouw@gmail.com)
Keywords: copepod, cytoplasmic feminizers, cytoplasmic sex ratio distorters, heritability, microsporidia, polygenic sex determination, primary sex ratio, Rifampin, Tigriopus californicus, Wolbachia

The ninespine stickleback as a model organism in arctic ecotoxicology.
Frank A. von Hippel, E. Jamie Trammell, Juha Merilä Matthew B. Sanders, Tamar Schwarz, John H. Postlethwait, Tom A. Titus, C. Loren Buck & Ioanna Katsiadaki — 2016(3) (Frank.vonHippel@nau.edu)
Keywords: biomonitoring, endocrine disruption, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Pungitius pungitius, sentinel species, stickleback, vitellogenin

Geographic variation in host acceptance by an insect parasitoid: genotype versus experience.
Matthijs Vos & Louise E.M. Vet — 2004(7) (m.vos@nioo.knaw.nl)
Keywords: adaptation, behavioural differentiation, divergence, foraging decisions, intraspecific variation, invasion, learning, natural selection, phenotypic plasticity

Evolution of polyphenism: the role of density and relative body size on morph determination.
Joe Y. Wakano & Howard H. Whiteman — 2008(8) (joe@math.meiji.ac.jp)
Keywords: conditional strategy, evolutionary game model, facultative paedomorphosis, phenotypic plasticity, polymorphism, polyphenism

Do extrafloral nectaries distract ants from visiting flowers? An experimental test of an overlooked hypothesis.
Diane Wagner & Adam Kay — 2002(2) (dwagner@ccmail.nevada.edu)
Keywords: amino acids, ants, behaviour, extrafloral nectaries, Forelius, Formica perpilosa, Formicidae, mutualism, sugars

Heritability and fitness consequences of cannibalism in Harmonia axyridis
J. D. Wagner, M. Dempsey Glover, J. B. Mosely and A. J. Moore — 1999(3)  
Keywords: beetle foraging behaviour, Coccinellidae, evolvability, genetic variation, ladybird beetle, power analysis, quantitative genetics

Evolutionary dynamics of frequency-dependent growth strategy in cannibalistic amphibians.
Joe Yuichiro Wakano, Y. Kohmatsu & N. Yamamura — 2002(5) (joe@chemsys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp)
Keywords: cannibalism, cannibalistic morph, frequency-dependent, polymorphism, evolutionary dynamics, evolutionary cycling

The relationship between offspring size and performance in the wolf spider Hogna helluo (Araneae:Lycosidae).
Sean E. Walker, A. L. Rypstra & S. D. Marshall — 2003(1) (sean.walker@uleth.ca )
Keywords: life history, optimality, resource allocation, size-number trade-off

Bacterial diversity in the surface layer of sediments from the East China Sea.
Jian-Xin Wang, Shi Tao, Kai-Cheng Yu, Ran Jiang, Ming-Hua Liu, Xue-Zhu Liu & Yingping Fan — 2016(5) (xuem07@163.com)
Keywords: bacterial diversity, marine sediment, nutrient concentrations, PCA, RDA, 16S rRNA.

The effects of apical meristem damage on growth and defences of two Acacia species in the Negev Desert.
David Ward — 2010(5) (ward@ukzn.ac.za)
Keywords: anti-herbivore defence, compensatory responses, overcompensation, plant-animal interactions, resource availability hypothesis, secondary metabolites, tolerance, trade-offs

A field test of the centrifugal community organization model using psammophilic gerbils in Israel's southern coastal plain.
Gideon Wasserberg, Burt P. Kotler, Douglas W. Morris & Zvika Abramsky — 2007(2) (wasserberg@wisc.edu)
Keywords: asymmetric centrifugal community organization, Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi, Gerbillus pyramidum, giving-up density, habitat selection, mechanism of co-existence

The prevalence and persistence of sigma virus, a biparentally transmitted parasite of Drosophila melanogaster.
Marta L. Wayne, Gabriela M. Blohm, Mollie E. Brooks, Kerry L. Regan, Brennin Y. Brown, Michael Barfield, Robert D. Holt & Benjamin M. Bolker — 2011(4) (mlwayne@ufl.edu)
Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster, evolution of virulence, host–pathogen co-evolution, persistence, prevalence, vertical transmission

Long-distance migrants as a model system of structural and physiological plasticity.
Thomas P. Weber & Anders Hedenström — 2001(3) (anders.hedenstrom@zooekol.lu.se)  
Keywords: avian migration, flight range, organ dynamics, stopover ecology, time minimization

Estimating the energetic cost of abiotic conditions using foraging behaviour.
Sandra J. Webster & Lawrence M. Dill — 2007(1) (sandrajwebster@hotmail.com>)
Keywords: giving-up density, habitat choice, Na + /K + -ATPase, salinity, temperature

Parasite heterogenity affects infection success and the occurence of within-host competition: an experimental study with a cestode.
Claus Wedekind & A. Ruetschi — 2000(8) (c.wedekind@ed.ac.uk)  
Keywords: antagonistic co-evolution, copepod, frequency-dependent selection, lottery model, Schistocephalus solidus

Maintenance of androdioecy in the freshwater shrimp, Eulimnadia texana: field estimates of inbreeding depression and relative male survival.
Stephen C. Weeks & Richard L. Bernhardt — 2004(2) (scw@uakron.edu)
Keywords: branchiopod crustaceans, evolution of mating systems, genetic load, hermaphrodites

Inbreeding effects on sperm production in clam shrimp (Eulimnadia texana).
Stephen C. Weeks, Sadie K. Reed, Donald W. Ott & Franca Scanabissi — 2009(1) (scw@uakron.edu)
Keywords: androdioecy, branchiopod crustacean, inbreeding depression, mating system, Spinicaudata

Phenotypic divergence of exotic fish populations is shaped by spatial proximity and habitat differences across an invaded landscape.
Peter A.H. Westley, Corinne M. Conway & Ian A. Fleming — 2012(2) (resolute@uw.edu)
Keywords: allometry, biological invasions, coloration patterns, geometric morphometrics, microevolution, phenotypic divergence with distance, phenotypic plasticity, salmonid fishes

Phenological assortative mating in flowering plants: the nature and consequences of its frequency-dependence.
A.E. Weis, J. Winterer, C. Vacher, T. M. Kossler, C. A. Young & G.L. LeBuhn — 2005(2) (aeweis@uci.edu)
Keywords: flowering phenology, genetic variance, natural selection

Advantages of seed dispersal: A re-evaluation of directed dispersal.
Dan Wenny — 2001(1) (danwenny@internetni.com)
Keywords: colonization, directed dispersal, dispersal quality, escape, nurse plants, recruitment foci, safe sites, seed dispersal, seed shadow

Search biases, frequency-dependent predation, and species coexistence.
Christopher J. Whelan, Joel S. Brown & Gitogo Maina — 2003(3) (virens@attglobal.net)
Keywords: direct and indirect interactions, frequency-dependent predation, nest predation, search bias, songbird communities, species coexistence, species interactions

Linking consumer-resource theory and digestive physiology: application to diet shifts.
Christopher J. Whelan, Joel S. Brown, Ken A.Schmidt, B.B.Steele & Mary F.Willson — 2000(7) (virens@attglobal.net)
Keywords: active nutrient transport, consumer—resource dynamics, digestive physiology, frugivory, gut modulation, insectivory, modulation isoleg, optimal foraging theory, passive nutrient absorption

Long-lasting effects of among- but not within-litter timing of birth in a viviparous lizard.
Geoffrey M. While, Tobias Uller, Jo McEvoy & Erik Wapstra — 2009(8) (gwhile@utas.edu.au)
Keywords: birth date, Egernia whitii, hatching asynchrony, maternal effects

Evolutionary behaviour in ecological systems with trade-offs and non-equilibrium population dynamics.
Andrew White, J.V. Greenman, T.G. Benton & M. Boots — 2006(3) (a.r.white@hw.ac.uk)
Keywords: adaptive dynamics, evolutionary branching in fecundity, population oscillations, trade-offs

Effects of population-level aggregation, autocorrelation, and interspecific association on the species-time relationship in two desert communities.
Ethan P. White & Michael A. Gilchrist — 2007(8) (epwhite@biology.usu.edu)
Keywords: aggregation, species-area relationship, species-time relationship, temporal autocorrelation, temporal turnover

Altruism in viscous populations revisited: Competition and altruism do not exactly cancel even in the island model.
Michael C. Whitlock & J. David Van Dyken — 2011(7) (whitlock@zoology.ubc.ca)
Keywords: altruism, competition, cooperation, inclusive fitness, island model, viscosity

An epidemiological context for the consequences of phenotypic plasticity in host-pathogen interactions.
Geoff Wild, Greg Costain & Troy Day — 2007(2) (gwild@uwo.ca)
Keywords: co-evolution, host-pathogen, infection, negotiation, plasticity, virulence

Kin selection models for the co-evolution of the sex ratio and sex-specific dispersal.
Geoff Wild & Peter D. Taylor — 2004(4) (taylorp@post.queensu.ca)
Keywords: co-evolution, inclusive fitness, kin selection, local competition, sex ratio, sex-specific dispersal, stability

Ultimate cause(s) of dwarfism in invertebrates: the case of driftwood talitrids.
David J.Wildish & Shawn M.C. Robinson — 2016(5) (D.J. Wildish: wildishd@dfo-mpo.gc.ca)
Keywords: behavioural experiments, invertebrate dwarfism, Orchestia gammarellus, oxygen uptake, Platorchestia platensis

Discerning adaptive divergence within an endangered conservation unit — Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon.
Nathan F. Wilke & Michael T. Kinnison — 2011(8) (nfwilke@mun.ca)
Keywords: captive rearing, common-garden experiment, Distinct Population Segment, egg size, larval development, reproductive investment, supplemental breeding

Inter-specific competitive stress does not affect the magnitude of inbreeding depression.
Yvonne Willi, Stefan Dietrich, Mark van Kleunen & Markus Fischer — 2007(6) (yvonne.willi@agrl.ethz.ch)
Keywords: environment dependence, environmental stress, inbreeding depression, inter-specific competition, intra-specific competition

Heritability under benign and stressful conditions in the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola.
Yvonne Willi, Rainer Follador, Nina Keller, Yves Schwander & Bruce A. McDonald — 2010(6) (yvonne.willi@unine.ch)
Keywords: adaptability, benign vs. stressful, environment-dependence, environmental change, evolutionary potential, favourable vs. unfavourable, genetic variance, heritability

Deconstructing the signal: phylogenetic structure, elevation change, and the implications for species co-existence.
John N. Williams & Colleen K. Kelly — 2013(5) (jnwilliams1@gmail.com)
Keywords: environmental gradient, Mexico, nearest taxon index, net relatedness index, phylogenetic clustering, species-to-genus ratio, temporal niche dynamics, tropical dry forest

Could whales have maintained a high abundance of krill?
Jay Willis — 2007(4) (jay.willis@csiro.au)
Keywords: computer model, IBM, regime change

The evolution of dispersal from source to sink populations.
Howard B. Wilson — 2001(1) (h.b.wilson@ic.ac.uk)
Keywords: dispersal, evolution, migration, population models, source-sink, spatial heterogeneity

Evolutionary genetics of seasonal polyphemism in the map butterfly. 
Jack J. Windig & Pascal Lammar — 1999(7) (j.j.windig@id.wag-ur.nl
Keywords: morphometrics, phenotypic plasticity, quantitative genetics, speciation

A Monte Carlo model for estimating the productivity of a generalist brood parasite across multiple host species.
Rachael Winfree, Jonathan Dushoff, Scott K. Robinson & David Bengali — 2006(2) (rwinfree@princeton.edu)
Keywords: Bayesian, bird conservation, brood parasite, demographic model, generalist parasite, habitat-specific reproduction, invasive species, Molothrus ater

Predation-mediated selection on prey morphology: a test using snowshoe hares.
Aaron J. Wirsing — 2003(3) (awirsing@sfu.ca)
Keywords: Lepus americanus, morphology, path analysis, selection, snowshoe hare, vulnerability to predation

Herbivory as an agent of natural selection for floral-sex ratio in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense).
Michael J. Wise & Jeremiah J. Cummins — 2007(8) (mwise@bucknell.edu)
Keywords: andromonoecy, floral-sex ratio, florivory, phenotypic-selection analysis, plant-breeding system

What makes nutrient-poor mediterranean heathlands so rich in plant diversity?
Irene C. Wisheu, Michael L. Rosenzweig, Linda Olsvig-Whittaker & Avi Shmida — 2000(7) (iwisheu@BIO1.Lan.mcgill.ca)
Keywords: biodiversity hot spot, fynbos, kwongan, seeder, speciation, sprouter

Strategy, compromise, and cheating in predator-prey games.
Nicholas Wolf & Marc Mangel — 2007(8) (msmangel@ucsc.edu)
Keywords: evolutionarily stable strategies, game theory, killer whale, krill, Steller sea lions, stochastic dynamic programming

The role of host plant fidelity in initiating insect race formation. 
T. K. Wood, K. J. Tilmon, A. B. Shantz, C. K. Harris and J. Pesek — 1999(3)  
Keywords: Enchenopa, gene flow, insects, plants, speciation, sympatric

A simulation study of the evolution of ageing.
Owen G. Woodberry, Kevin B. Korb & Ann E. Nicholson — 2007(7) (owenw@infotech.monash.edu.au)
Keywords: adaptation, ageing, co-evolution, diversity, group selection, inclusive fitness, kin selection, units of selection

Sexually dimorphic body size and development time plasticity in Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).
Jillian D. Wormington & Steven A. Juliano — 2014(3) (jillianwormington@gmail.com)
Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes triseriatus, phenotypic plasticity, sexual bimaturism, sexual size dimorphism

Local adaptation to serpentine and non-serpentine soils in Collinsia sparsiflora.
Jessica Wilcox Wright, Maureen L. Stanton & Rosa Scherson — 2006(1) (jessicawwright@fs.fed.us)
Keywords: Collinsia sparsiflora, ecotypic differentiation, fitness, local adaptation, phenology, reciprocal transplant experiment, serpentine soils

Intraspecific diversity in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, in Iceland: I. Detection using mixture models.
Pamela J. Woods, Skúli Skúlason, Sigurður S. Snorrason, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Hilmar J. Malmquist, Thomas P. Quinn — 2012(8) (pamelajwoods@gmail.com)
Keywords: bimodal distribution, divergent selection, ecological speciation, individual heterogeneity, life history, maturity, mixture model, resource polymorphism, salmonid, Von Bertalanffy

Intraspecific diversity in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, in Iceland: II. What environmental factors influence resource polymorphism in lakes?
Pamela J. Woods, Skúli Skúlason, Sigurður S. Snorrason, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Hilmar J. Malmquist & Thomas P. Quinn — 2012(8) (pamelajwoods@gmail.com)
Keywords: competition, divergent selection, ecological speciation, individual heterogeneity, limnology, prey availability, resource polymorphism, salmonid

Male red throat coloration, pelvic spine coloration, and courtship behaviours in threespine stickleback.
Daniel Shane Wright, Lengxob Yong, Michele E.R. Pierotti, & Jeffrey S. McKinnon — 2016(3) (d.s.wright@rug.nl)
Keywords: aggression, colour, Gasterosteus aculeatus, 11-ketotestosterone, pelvic spine, threespine stickleback

Male ornament variation in a sexually dimorphic seabird with variable male mating success.
Stephanie G. Wright & Donald C. Dearborn — 2009(5) (Don.Dearborn@bucknell.edu)
Keywords: Fregata minor, lek paradox, ornaments, sexual selection, SWS1 opsin, ultraviolet

Reproductive character displacement between the closely related freshwater snails Lymnaea peregra and L. ovata.
Esther B. Wullschleger, Jürgen Wiehn & Jukka Jokela — 2002(2) (jukka.jokela@oulu.fi)
Keywords: assortative mating, Lymnaea, reinforcement, reproductive character displacement, speciation

Morphological evolution of an anadromous threespine stickleback population within one generation after reintroduction to Cheney Lake, Alaska.
Matthew A. Wund, Omi D. Singh, Ashley Geiselman & Michael A. Bell — 2016(2) (wundm@tcnj.edu)
Keywords: common garden, contemporary evolution, Gasterosteus aculeatus, geometric morphometrics, morphology, phenotypic plasticity, threespine stickleback.

What determines the attack distance of a stalking predator?
Shigeo Yachi — 2000(8) (yachi@ecology.kyoto-u.ac.jp)  
Keywords: attack distance, merit of proximity, merit of surprise, stalking predation

Reproductive character displacement by the evolution of female mate choice.
Ryo Yamaguchi & Yoh Iwasa — 2013(1) (ryamaguchi@bio-math10.biology.kyushu-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: extinction, heterospecific mating, pre-zygotic isolation, quantitative trait, reproductive character displacement, sexual selection

Environmental variation does not always promote plasticity: evolutionarily realized reaction norm for costly plasticity.
Atsushi Yamauchi & Daisuke Takahashi — 2014(8) (a-yama@ecology.kyoto-u.ac.jp)
Keywords: environmental fluctuation, model, optimization, phenotypic plasticity.

Rapid accumulation of a vertically transmitted parasite triggered by relaxation of natural selection among hosts. 
L. Yampolsky, C. T. Webb, S. A. Shabalina & A. S. Kondrashov — 1999(5)
Keywords: Drosophila, host-parasite co-evolution, sigma virus, vertical transmission

Viscous populations evolve altruistic programmed ageing in ability conflict in a changing environment.
Jiang-Nan Yang — 2013(5) (yangjiangnan@qq.com)
Keywords: evolvability, genetic creativity, kin selection, longevity, population viscosity, senescence

Phenotypic plasticity of Thellungiella salsaginea in response to saline stress.
B.Q. Yao, C.M. Zhao, Jianming Deng, Huakun Zhou, X.Q. Zhao & J.Q. Li — 2013(7) (dengjm@lzu.edu.cn)
Keywords: growing traits, phenotypic integration, phenotypic plasticity, physiological traits, population, Thellungiella salsaginea

Morphological plasticity of native and non-native pumpkinseed sunfish in response to habitat type.
Stan Yavno & Michael G. Fox — 2014(5) (stanyavno@post.tau.ac.il)
Keywords: Centrarchidae, foraging, habitat, reaction norm, trophic polymorphism

Precocial nest departure in the Alcidae.
R. C. Ydenberg — 2001(2) (ydenberg@sfu.ca)  
Keywords: alcid nest departure, Ancient Murrelet, growth-mortality trade-off, parent-offspring conflict, precocity

Division of labor by provisioners.
Ronald C. Ydenberg & Lia Hemerik — 2016(5) (ydenberg@sfu.ca)
Keywords: central place foraging, collection of fuel vs. cargo resources, division of labour, provisioning, social evolution, teamwork

Effect of birth and weaning mass on growth, survival and reproduction in the bank vole.
Hannu Ylönen, Taina J. Horne & Marjaana Luukkonen — 2004(3) (hylonen@bytl.jyu.fi)
Keywords: bank vole, birth mass, compensatory growth, life histories, reproduction, survival, weaning mass

Increase of skull size in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Denmark during the 20th century: an effect of improved diet?
Yoram Yom-tov, Shlomith Yom-tov & Hans Baagře — 2003(7) (yomtov@post.tau.ac.il )
Keywords: body size, Denmark, diet, Eurasian badger, red fox

Examining Ashmole's hypothesis: Are life-history parameters of resident passerines related to the proportion of migrants?
Yoram Yom-Tov and Eli Geffen — 2002(5) (yomtov@ccsg.tau.ac.il )
Keywords: Australia, breeding season, clutch size, India, passerines, Southern Africa, southern hemisphere

Correlates of red throat coloration in female stickleback and their potential evolutionary significance.
Lengxob Yong, Ruqing Guo, Daniel S. Wright, Samantha A. Mears, Michele Pierotti & Jeffrey S. McKinnon — 2013(4) (mckinnonj@ecu.edu)
Keywords: colour, condition dependence, female ornament, Gasterosteus aculeatus, natural selection, sexual selection, threespine stickleback

The evolution of sex differences in mate-attracting signaling.
Kenji Yoshida & Yoh Iwasa — 2013(8) (yohiwasa@kyudai.jp)
Keywords: mate-attracting signal, sex role, elasticity, quantitative genetic dynamics

How supplemental food may induce abnormality in wild Japanese macaque populations.
Jin Yoshimura, Takayuki Fujiki, Takahisa Kawai & Hiroyasu Amagai — 2003(7) (jin@sys.eng.shizuoka.ac.jp)
Keywords: abnormalities, feedings, Japanese macaque, selection intensity

The role of rare species in the community stability of a model ecosystem.
Jin Yoshimura, Kei-ichi Tainaka, Takanori Suzuki, Yukio Sakisaka, Nariyuki Nakagiri, Tatsuya Togashi & Tatsuo Miyazaki — 2006(4) (jin@sys.eng.shizuoka.ac.jp)
Keywords: community structure, lattice ecosystems, low-density species, perturbation

Seed mass, shape, and persistence in the soil seed bank of Israeli coastal sand dune flora.
Shunli Yu, Marcelo Sternberg, Pua Kutiel & Hongwei Chen — 2007(2) (shunliyu@ibcas.ac.cn)
Keywords: Israeli coastal sand dune flora, persistence, seed mass, seed shape

Dispersal evolution in fragmented habitats; the interplay between the tendency and ability to disperse.
Roman Yukilevich — 2005(7) (yukilevi@life.bio.sunysb.edu)
Keywords: adaptive landscape, co-evolution, colonization, evolutionary dynamics, islands, penetrance

Signals of predation-induced directional and disruptive selection in the threespined stickleback.
Michael Zeller, Kay Lucek, Marcel P. Haesler, Ole Seehausen & Arjun Sivasundar — 2012(2) (mich.zeller@gmail.com)
Keywords: age classes, defence traits, disruptive selection, Eda, predation

The evolution of cooperation on fragmented landscapes: the spatial Hamilton rule.
Feng Zhang, Yi Tao, Zizhen Li & Cang Hui — 2010(1) (chui@sun.ac.za)
Keywords: evolutionary game, habitat loss, invasion analysis, pair approximation, Prisoner's Dilemma

A species of fig tree and three unrelated fig wasp pollinators.
Feng-Ping Zhang, Yan-Qiong Peng, Jun-Ming Guan & Da-Rong Yang — 2008(4) (yangdr@xtbg.ac.cn)
Keywords: Ficus, mutualism, non-pollinating fig wasps, parasitism, pollinating fig wasp

Correlates of genetic diversity in bird nuclear genes.
Tangjie Zhang & Qing Liu — 2012(3) (slx@yzu.edu.cn)
Keywords: birds, generation time, molecular evolution, mutation, nuclear genes

Correlation of life-history traits with the molecular diversity of bird nuclear coding elements.
Tangjie Zhang, Yuzhi Liu & Zhiyue Wang — 2010(8) (slx@yzu.edu.cn)
Keywords: Aves, life-history traits, mutation, nearly neutral theory

Invasive Chromolaena odorata has similar size but higher phenolic concentration than native conspecifics.
Yulong Zheng, Yulong Feng, Zhiyong Liao, Weitao Li, Haifeng Xiao & Haozhi Sui — 2013(7) (zhengyl@xtbg.org.cn)
Keywords: Chromolaena odorata, common garden experiment, EICA hypothesis, evolution, genetic differentiation

Protandry in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.
Wilte G. Zijlstra, Fanja Kesbeke, Bas J. Zwaan & Paul M. Brakefield — 2002(8) (zijlstra@rulsfb.leidenuniv.nl)
Keywords: Bicyclus anynana, life history, protandry, seasonality, selection, sexual differences

Fluorescence in Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda: Asellota): a first approach.
Martin Zimmer, Sabine Geisler, Sylvia Walter & Heinz Brendelberger — 2002(2) (mzimmer@zoologie.uni-kiel.de)
Keywords: assortative mating, behavioural change, colour change, endoparasites, honest signal, metabolite storage, parasite-induced changes, predation risk

Fine-scale spatial genetic structure suggests modest risk of inbreeding in natural populations of Argiope bruennichi.
Stefanie M. Zimmer & Jutta M. Schneider — 2016(1) (zimmer.steffi@googlemail.com)
Keywords: dispersal, genetic population structure, inbreeding depression, mating strategy, microsatellite, polyandry.

The organization of phytophagous guilds in Cardueae flower heads: conclusions from null models.
Helmut Zwölfer & Bernhard Stadler — 2004(8) (h.zwoelfer@freenet.de)
Keywords: assembly rules, Cardueae flower heads, competition, enemy-free space, guild structure, invasions, rendezvous arenas